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Valentina Scariot, Aziz Akkak, and Roberto Botta

Six polymorphic sequence-tagged microsatellite sites (STMSs) were used to characterize 65 accessions of old garden roses [OGRs (Rosa L. spp.)] from seven botanical sections and 13 horticultural groups. Aims of the study were to define the genetic profiles of accessions and to provide information useful for the classification and pedigree reconstruction of OGRs. In roses, a precise botanical classification is difficult due to repeated hybridization carried out in breeding; OGRs are classified in horticultural groups on the basis of their original parentage or of their morphological traits. A total of 82 alleles were detected at six loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from six to 21, with an average of 13.7 alleles per locus. A dendrogram was constructed by cluster analysis, displaying the relative genetic similarities between species' accessions, hybrids, and cultivars. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into seven major clusters that were substantially consistent with their classification into botanical sections and horticultural groups. Several hypotheses of apportionment of accessions to horticultural groups were evaluated on the basis of the relative position in the dendrogram of the analyzed individuals. Results demonstrated that DNA analyses can contribute to drawing the botanic classification of rose accessions, improving the genetic knowledge on the background of modern rose, and providing the basis for breeding programs.

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Paul R. Cabe, Andrew Baumgarten, Kyle Onan, James J. Luby, and David S. Bedford

We used microsatellite loci to investigate the parentage of the apple cultivar `Honeycrisp', a patented University of Minnesota introduction. In an attempt to find the correct parents, we also examined other apple varieties associated with the University of Minnesota apple breeding program. Based on written records from the 1960s, the presumed parents of `Honeycrisp' were `Honeygold' and `Macoun'. We were able to exclude both of these as parents, but found that `Keepsake' was consistent as one of the parents. A second potential parent could not be discovered. `Haralson', another commercially important cultivar from the University of Minnesota, is likely from a cross between `Malinda' and `Wealthy'.

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Eiichi Inoue, Lin Ning, Hiromichi Hara, Shuan Ruan, and Hiroyuki Anzai

to study the genetic diversity and relationships in chestnut cultivars. Simple sequence repeat (SSR), which is one such marker, is a short tandem repeat sequence that is distributed throughout the genome. They are used to develop molecular markers for

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Daofeng Liu, Jing Ma, Jianfeng Yang, Tien V. Nguyen, Huamin Liu, Renwei Huang, Shunzhao Sui, and Mingyang Li

) associated with seed protein content in soybean ( Jun et al., 2008 ). Among the many types of molecular markers, SSRs and SNPs are the preferred marker types for many genetic applications. SSRs are efficient codominant anchor markers with high levels of

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Jason D. Zurn, Katie A. Carter, Melinda H. Yin, Margaret Worthington, John R. Clark, Chad E. Finn, and Nahla Bassil

by environmental conditions, and closely related individuals may appear phenotypically the same ( Gilbert et al., 1999 ; Laurentin, 2009 ). Of existing DNA-based markers, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for cultivar

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Xiu Cai Fan, Hai Sheng Sun, Ying Zhang, Jian Fu Jiang, Min Li, and Chong Huai Liu

enable the association of heritable traits with underlying genomic variation ( Duran et al., 2009 ). SSRs, whose advantages include codominance, high allele diversity, high stability, and simple operation, have been widely used in genetic diversity

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P. Boccacci, A. Akkak, D. Torello Marinoni, G. Bounous, and R. Botta

The authors thank H. Steinkellner (Zentrum fuer Angewandte Genetik, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur, Vienna, Austria) for providing unpublished primer sequences of SSR loci, and S.A. Mehlenbacher (Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore.) for

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Nina R.F. Castillo, Barbara M. Reed, Julie Graham, Felicidad Fernández-Fernández, and Nahla Victor Bassil

limited number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are reported for Rubus , which include the invasive weed R. alceifolius ( Amsellem et al., 2001 ), an Azorean island endemic species R. hochstetterorum ( Lopes et al., 2006 ), and red raspberry ( Graham

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B. Khadari, A. Oukabli, M. Ater, A. Mamouni, J.P. Roger, and F. Kjellberg

A study was conducted to identify genotypes present in a Moroccan fig germplasm collection and provide the first database for a reference collection in northern Morocco. In total, 75 fig samples were analyzed using 8 intersimple sequence repeat primers and 6 simple sequence repeat loci. From these samples, we identified 72 fig genotypes. In genetically heterogeneous cultivars, genotypes under the same denomination were distinguished by both molecular markers and pomological traits. Molecular analysis was used to classify the germplasm into 46 well-defined cultivars and 6 caprifig trees. The remaining genotypes were not clearly identified due to three cases of mislabeling and four cases of homonymy. No evidence was found for the occurrence of geographically widespread genotypes.

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Barbara S. Gilmore, Nahla V. Bassil, Danny L. Barney, Brian J. Knaus, and Kim E. Hummer

SSR markers are more reproducible and can be shared among laboratories. In addition to being typically codominant and exhibiting Mendelian inheritance, they also provide anchored loci for comparative mapping. These qualities make SSR markers an ideal