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Jeanine M. Davis, Douglas C. Sanders, Paul V. Nelson, Laura Lengnick, and Wade J. Sperry

Boron deficiency in fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a widespread problem that reduces yield and fruit quality but is often not recognized by growers. Tomatoes were grown in field and hydroponic culture to compare the effects of foliar and soil applied B on plant growth, fruit yield, fruit quality, and tissue nutrient levels. Regardless of application method, B was associated with increased tomato growth and the concentration of K, Ca, and B in plant tissue. Boron application was associated with increased N uptake by tomato in field culture, but not under hydroponic culture. In field culture, foliar and/or soil applied B similarly increased fresh-market tomato plant and root dry weight, uptake, and tissue concentrations of N, Ca, K, and B, and improved fruit set, total yields, marketable yields, fruit shelf life, and fruit firmness. The similar growth and yield responses of tomato to foliar and root B application suggests that B is translocated in the phloem in tomatoes. Fruit from plants receiving foliar or root applied B contained more B, and K than fruit from plants not receiving B, indicating that B was translocated from leaves to fruit and is an important factor in the management of K nutrition in tomato.

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O.L. Lau and R. Yastremski

`Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) were subjected to either 0C controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage or to a postharvest coating of 1.0% to 2.5% Nutri-Save (NS; a polysaccharide derived from shellfish) plus air storage. NS-coated apples were greener and firmer and had higher titratable acidity (TA) and more shrivelled and injured fruit than the control after storage in air at 0C for 5 to 6 months and ripening in air at 20C for 7 days. Poststorage washing increased skin injury, and low relative humidity during ripening increased shriveling of NS fruit. NS applications led to an accumulation of CO2 and C2H4 and a small reduction of O2 in the fruit core cavities. The use of 1.5% O2 + 1.5% CO2 in the storage atmosphere was more effective than NS plus air storage in maintaining flesh firmness (FF) and TA without increasing fruit shrivel or skin injury. NS treatments maintained FF and a green skin in fruit ripened in air at 20C for 2 or 4 weeks following harvest, but some shrivel was evident by 4 weeks. Better retention of skin greenness was the only benefit derived from a poststorage NS treatment of CA-stored fruit during the shelf-life test.

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Kim S. Lewers, John M. Enns, and Patricia Castro

with increased shelf life. Compared with other current cultivars and breeding selections evaluated after 2 weeks in cold storage, ‘Keepsake’ strawberries had a low proportion of degraded and decayed fruits. The fruits have outstanding flavor with high

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Kim S. Lewers and John M. Enns

develop strawberries with increased shelf life ( Lewers et al., 2019 ). ‘Cordial’ and ‘Keepsake’ strawberries had similarly low proportions of fruit rot and degradation in 2 weeks of refrigerated storage compared with other cultivars and breeding

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John R. Stommel, Mary J. Camp, Judith M. Dumm, Kathleen G. Haynes, Yaguang Luo, and Anne Marie Schoevaars

, 2002 ). Tissue breakdown and microbial contamination are important problems that shorten product shelf life of pepper and other fresh-cut fruits and vegetables ( Barrett et al., 2010 ). Numerous factors contribute to fresh-cut product shelf life

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Martine Deschênes, Claudine Dubé, Rong Tsao, Louis Gauthier, André Gosselin, and Yves Desjardins

‘Jeanne d'Orléans’ has larger and firmer fruits ( Fig. 1 ) that have an excellent shelf life and higher soluble solids compared with the commercial cultivars in this study. ‘Jeanne d'Orléans’ also has higher antioxidants than commercially grown raspberries

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Titus M. Kyalo, H. Brent Pemberton, and Jayne M. Zajicek

To assess the effects of summer-like [high-temperature long-day (HTLD)] vs. winter-like [low-temperature short-day (LTSD)] growing conditions on production quality and postproduction longevity of potted miniature roses, plants of Rosa L. `Meirutral' and `Meijikatar' were grown in growth chambers using a short-cycle production schedule (potted liners grown until root establishment, pinched, and flowered). Plants grown under the HTLD environment [30C day/21C night plus 725 μmol·m–2·s–1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) for 14 hours per day] had more flowering shoots than those grown under the LTSD environment (21C day/16C night plus 725 μmol·m–2·s–1 PPF for 10 hours per day). The difference is attributable to fewer blind shoots (shoots with aborted growing terminals) under HTLD, because plants in both environments had the same total number of shoots at flowering. Plants in the HTLD chamber also flowered faster, were shorter, and had smaller and lighter-colored flowers than plants in the LTSD chamber. In addition, plants under HTLD exhibited greater poststorage floral longevity and whole-plant shelf life than plants grown under LTSD conditions, regardless of cultivar, simulated shipping (storage) treatment (4 days at 16C), or stage of floral development at harvest. These results suggest benefits from summer production of potted miniature rose plants and the possibility of using a higher-temperature forcing regimen than is normally recommended for winter production.

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Karim M. Farag and Jiwan P. Palta

A natural lipid, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), was used as a tomato fruit ripening agent. The effect of this compound on hastening the ripening and on the defoliation of the `Heinz 7155' processing tomato and the Glamour fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was compared to the effect of ethephon. Vines were sprayed to runoff in the field with a hand sprayer and fruits were harvested 2 weeks or 20 days later in a single harvest operation. LPE (100 mg liter-1) accelerated ripening of both processing and fresh-market tomatoes without defoliation. LPE-treated tomatoes had a better shelf life than the control or ethephon-treated fruit, whether they were harvested at the breaker, pink, or red stage of maturity. The combination of LPE and ethephon (100 mg liter-1) enhanced tomato ripening without damaging the foliage, suggesting that LPE can mitigate the undesirable effects of ethephon on foliage and the fruit. The LPE-related lipid phosphatidyldimethylethanol-amine dipalmitoyl (PDED) also was able to enhance some aspects of keeping quality of tomato fruits, but was not able to enhance fruit ripening. Phosphatidylethanolamine was not as effective as LPE or PDED. It appears that the active molecule of this natural lipid is the lyso form. Our results provide evidence that LPE can enhance tomato fruit ripening and postharvest storage life of vine-ripe fruits and fruits picked at early ripeness stages.

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Randy G. Gardner and Dilip R. Panthee

other grape tomato cultivars. The rin gene of NC 2 Grape is useful in developing tomato hybrids with extended shelf life. Although rin is classified as recessive in action, it is not completely recessive and exerts influence in the heterozygous

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James D. Hansen, Arnold H. Hara, and Victoria L. Tenbrink

Vapor heat treatments to disinfest tropical cut flowers and foliage were evaluated using a commercial facility. Efficacy was determined for specific durations against representative Hawaiian quarantine pests on their plant hosts. Nymphs and adults of aphids, soft and armored scales, mealybugs, and thrips were killed after 1 hour at 46.6C, and both life stages of aphids and armored scales along with mealybug nymphs after 2 hours at 45.2C. Injury to several varieties of Hawaiian floral commodities (Araceae, Musaceae, Zingiberaceae, Heliconiaceae, Orchidaceae, Marantaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Agavaceae, Proteaceae) during these treatments was determined. Large heliconias, most red ginger, bird-of-paradise flowers and leaves, and most foliage were not damaged; anthuriums, pincushion protea, and orchid flowers and foliage were very sensitive to vapor heat. Treatment modification was needed to reduce plant injury to these commodities without losing efficacy. The number of shelf-life days of the treated plant material was estimated from the visual ratings.