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Adam Bolton and Philipp Simon

( Bernstein and Ayers, 1953 ; Maas and Hoffman, 1977 ). To date, there have been few evaluations of the salinity tolerance of carrot during the seed germination stage ( Kahouli et al., 2014 ; Rode et al., 2012 ; Schmidhalter and Oertli, 1991 ). These

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T.A. Bacon and D.H. Byrne

A study was conducted on various peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars to determine the relationships among seed germination, seedling survival, seedling rosetting, fruit development period (FDP), and percent dry weight of the ovule (PDO). Germination and survival increased rapidly between 80 and 100 days of FDP, corresponding to an increase in mean PDO from 16% to 50%. Germination and survival leveled off after 105 days of FDP at >85%, corresponding to a mean PDO of 64%. Rosetting was high among seedlings for cultivars with FDP <110 days, but dropped rapidly as FDP increased. PDO was found to be a better indicator of seed germinability and seedling survival than FDP.

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Yan-Ling Zheng and Huan-Cheng Ma

( Zheng et al., 2013 ) and sticky snakeroot [ Eupatorium adenophorum (unpublished data)] could inhibit seed germination of mumian. However, seedling regeneration is still impaired around the mature trees even though no sticky snakeroot exists at some

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Thomas H. Boyle

Binomial probability distributions were used to determine the effects of percent seed germination and number of seeds sown per cell on expected numbers of seedlings in plug trays. Expected numbers of empty cells in five types of plug trays (128, 273, 338, 406, and 512 cells/tray) were calculated for cases where one to seven seeds were sown per cell and seed germination ranged from 50% to 95%. Generally, one additional seed was required per plug cell for each 10% decrease in the germination percentage in order to attain the same number of filled cells per plug tray. Expected frequencies were calculated for the number of seedlings in plug trays when one to five seeds were sown per cell and seed germination ranged from 50% to 95%. When the number of seeds sown per cell remained constant, uniformity in seedling number per cell increased as the germination percentage increased. When percent seed germination remained constant and the number of seeds sown per cell was increased, the percentage of cells with at least one seedling increased, whereas the uniformity in seedling number per cell decreased. Additional examples are presented in the article on the utility of binomial distributions in determining expected number of seedlings.

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Dilinuer Shalimu, Ke Li, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, and Yujun Liu

differences. No seeds germinated in light after 12 months of storage, and no seeds germinated in darkness after 6, 9, or 12 months of storage. Cultivars: Kashgar Akeqishiliu (I), Yecheng Suanshiliu (II), Hotan CeLe1#shiliu (III), and Turpan Suanshiliu (IV

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Natalia R. Dolce, Luis A. Mroginski, and Hebe Y. Rey

under optimal conditions is required for embryo maturation, and even then seed germination by using conventional methods is very poor ( Hu, 1975 ; Hu et al., 1979 ; Ives, 1923 ). This fact constitutes a serious inconvenience for breeding programs

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Anna J. Talcott and William R. Graves

.L. 1962 Revision of the genus Ptelea (Rutaceae) Brittonia 14 1 45 Czabator, F.J. 1962 Germination value: An index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination For. Sci. 8 386 396 Dirr, M.A. 1998 Manual of woody landscape plants: Their

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Katherine L. Vasquez and Wayne A. Mackay

Lupinus havardii and L. texensis are two commercially important species of lupines (bluebonnets) in Texas. There is no current information for the storage requirements of these two bluebonnet species seeds. A study was undertaken to examine the effects of relative humidity, temperature, and scarification on seed germinability. Seeds of the two bluebonnet species were stored under five relative humidity treatments (11%, 23%, 52%, 75%, and 95%) and two temperature treatments (3°C or 22°C) either scarified or nonscarified in factorial combination. Seed samples were removed monthly. Nonscarified seed were scarified and all seed were placed in a seed germination chamber and germinated in petri dishes containing moistened filter paper. All samples of seed stored under 95% relative humidity were lost to seed-borne contamination. Germinability of scarified seed of both species decreased within 5 months in the 22°C/75% RH treatment. Other treatments had no effect on germinability during 7 months of seed storage.

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Ali O. Sari, Mario R. Morales, and James E. Simon

Low and erratic seed germination presents a major production problem in the medicinal plants that collectively are called echinacea or purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia and E. pallida). In this study, nine seed lots of each E. pallida and E. angustifolia from a wide variety of commercial sources and germplasm collections were collected and treated with a solution of 1.0 mm [144.5 mg·L-1 (ppm)] ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphoric acid) to determine whether ethephon would sufficiently improve seed germination to be used by industry to improve the quality of echinacea seed. Applicationof ethephon increased seed germination in both E. pallida and E. angustifolia seed lots regardless of seed sources. The increase in germination by ethephon in eight seed lots of E. pallida and four seed lots in E. angustifolia were statistically significant compared to the nontreated control seeds. The increases in germination were also significant across seed lots for both species. Average germination increases across all seed lots were 1271 and 29% for E. pallida and E. angustifolia, respectively. Average germination of ethephon treated-untreated control seed lots was 76% to 27% and 79% to 62% for E. pallida and E. angustifolia, respectively.

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Ann Fagan Hruska, Michael A. Dirr, and F. A. Pokorny

Abstract

Fruit pulp extracts of Liriope muscari (Decne.) Bailey were analyzed chromatographically and spectrophotometrically to determine which compounds were responsible for their blue-black color. A trihydroxy series of mon-oglycosylated anthocyanidins (delphinidin, petunidin, malvidin) were isolated. The malvidin glycoside appeared to be involved in a co-pigment complex with at least a flavone, explaining the neutral pH-stable blue color. Previous work indicated that a water-soluble seed germination inhibitor was present in the pulp. Nine bands were collected as fractions from Sephadex column chromatography. Each fraction was monitored by paper chromatography before use in a bioassay that tested for germination inhibitors. Several fractions significantly inhibited seed germination of Cucumis sativus L. ‘Poinsett’. Four classes of phenolic compounds were identified from the chromatograms: anthocyanins, anthoxanthins, phenolic acids, and a tannin-like polyphenol. Phenolic acids and the tannin-like substance were most prevalent in the 3 most toxic fractions. A mixture of these 3 fractions caused seed germination inhibition exceeding that attained by the individual fractions. Caffeic acid was tentatively identified as one of the phenolic acids present. Results indicated that germination inhibition is due to the combined action of several phenolic compounds.