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Andrea Quintana, Rosanna Freyre, Thomas M. Davis, and Robert J. Griesbach

cultivars of Anagallis in the ‘Wildcat’™ series with blue, orange, dark orange, and red flower colors. Genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway that are responsible for flower color variation have been widely studied, mostly in Petunia and

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Shi-Lin Tian, Li Li, Yue-Qin Tian, S.N.M. Shah, and Zhen-Hui Gong

industries ( Tian et al., 2014a ). Capsanthin synthesis is regulated by capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (Ccs) present in membrane fractions of pepper fruit ( Bouvier et al., 1994 ). Capsanthin is the end product in the pepper carotenoids biosynthetic pathway

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Alejandra Ferenczi, Nobuko Sugimoto, and Randolph M. Beaudry

can be straight or branched. The branched-chain esters are derived from the pathways associated with branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis via 1-carbon (1-C) fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) (Kroumova and Wagner, 2003 ; Sugimoto et al., 2011 , 2015

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Eleazar Reyes and Paul H. Jennings

The effect of chilling stress on induction of the cyanide-resistant pathway was investigated using roots of 3-day-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown at 26C and then chilled at 2C, 10C, or 15C for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. A 24-h post-chilling treatment was imposed on different sets of chilled cucumber roots at 26C. Exposing seedlings to 2C, 10C, and 15C, as well as to a post-chilling treatment, induced differential responses in the activity of the cyanide-resistant pathway. Cucumber seedling roots exhibited an increase in the cyanide-resistant pathway after a 96-h chilling treatment at 2C. The involvement of the cyanide-resistant pathway in the chilling stress response will be discussed.

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

represents the first step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway. Therefore, mesotrione is an indirect inhibitor of phytoene desaturase because plastoquinone serves as a cofactor for this enzyme. Tissue whitening after mesotrione applications can be attributed

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Neda Keyhaninejad, Richard D. Richins, and Mary A. O’Connell

). Phytochrome regulates expression of phytoene synthase, a key step on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in tomato fruit ( Alba et al., 2000 ; Schofield and Paliyath, 2005 ). Similar results were observed for carotenoids in pepper leaves ( Simkin et al., 2003

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Zhigang Ouyang, Huihui Duan, Lanfang Mi, Wei Hu, Jianmei Chen, Xingtao Li, and Balian Zhong

, low temperature, and heat stress by inducing a series of signaling cascades. Studies suggest that osmotic stress imposed by high-salt or drought stress is transmitted through at least two pathways: ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways ( Xiong and

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Bao-Cheng Ma, Wan-Li Tang, Li-Yan Ma, Ling-Ling Li, Lu-Bin Zhang, Shi-Jiang Zhu, Chuxiong Zhuang, and Donald Irving

; Schickler and Chet, 1997 ). Plants use multiple pathways to transduce pathogenic signals and activate the hypersensitive response (HR), SAR, and other defense responses. The onset of SAR is associated with increased endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA

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Guangxin Liu, Xiaoqian Su, Lingling Guan, and Fengrong Hu

biochemical metabolic pathways in plants, consequently affecting the growth and development of plants and pathogens ( Espinosa-Leal et al., 2018 ). Most reports have focused on enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and

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Yi Zhang, Xiao-Hui Hu, Yu Shi, Zhi-Rong Zou, Fei Yan, Yan-Yan Zhao, Hao Zhang, and Jiu-Zhou Zhao

weakening NR and NiR activities, by diminishing NO 3 − -N uptake, and/or by rapid assimilation of NH 4 + stimulated through the NADH-GDH and GS/NADH-GOGAT pathways. In our experiment, a stress-induced increase in plant NADH-GDH, which is an important enzyme