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Rongrong Duan, Deke Xing, Tian Chen, and Yanyou Wu

Nitrate (NO 3 – ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ) are the primary nitrogen sources for higher plants ( Cui et al., 2017 ; Poothong and Reed, 2016 ; Tho et al., 2017 ). High- and low-affinity transport systems (HATS and LATS) are the main pathways for the

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David M. Czarnecki II and Zhanao Deng

UFG formation and fertilization with normal n male gametes, and that there exist two or more pathways for polyploidization at each of the ploidy levels in L . camara . It is conceivable that the existence of multiple polyploidization pathways could

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Jin Jiao, Xing Liu, Juyou Wu, Guohua Xu, and Shaoling Zhang

signals [such as auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid (ABA)] via the receptor protein kinase; thus, the MAPK cascade is rapidly activated. To date, the responses of many MAPK genes to abiotic stress and their molecular signaling pathways have been widely

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Andrea Quintana, Rosanna Freyre, Thomas M. Davis, and Robert J. Griesbach

cultivars of Anagallis in the ‘Wildcat’™ series with blue, orange, dark orange, and red flower colors. Genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway that are responsible for flower color variation have been widely studied, mostly in Petunia and

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Shi-Lin Tian, Li Li, Yue-Qin Tian, S.N.M. Shah, and Zhen-Hui Gong

industries ( Tian et al., 2014a ). Capsanthin synthesis is regulated by capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (Ccs) present in membrane fractions of pepper fruit ( Bouvier et al., 1994 ). Capsanthin is the end product in the pepper carotenoids biosynthetic pathway

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Alejandra Ferenczi, Nobuko Sugimoto, and Randolph M. Beaudry

can be straight or branched. The branched-chain esters are derived from the pathways associated with branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis via 1-carbon (1-C) fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) (Kroumova and Wagner, 2003 ; Sugimoto et al., 2011 , 2015

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Eleazar Reyes and Paul H. Jennings

The effect of chilling stress on induction of the cyanide-resistant pathway was investigated using roots of 3-day-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown at 26C and then chilled at 2C, 10C, or 15C for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. A 24-h post-chilling treatment was imposed on different sets of chilled cucumber roots at 26C. Exposing seedlings to 2C, 10C, and 15C, as well as to a post-chilling treatment, induced differential responses in the activity of the cyanide-resistant pathway. Cucumber seedling roots exhibited an increase in the cyanide-resistant pathway after a 96-h chilling treatment at 2C. The involvement of the cyanide-resistant pathway in the chilling stress response will be discussed.

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

represents the first step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway. Therefore, mesotrione is an indirect inhibitor of phytoene desaturase because plastoquinone serves as a cofactor for this enzyme. Tissue whitening after mesotrione applications can be attributed

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Neda Keyhaninejad, Richard D. Richins, and Mary A. O’Connell

). Phytochrome regulates expression of phytoene synthase, a key step on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in tomato fruit ( Alba et al., 2000 ; Schofield and Paliyath, 2005 ). Similar results were observed for carotenoids in pepper leaves ( Simkin et al., 2003

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Zhigang Ouyang, Huihui Duan, Lanfang Mi, Wei Hu, Jianmei Chen, Xingtao Li, and Balian Zhong

, low temperature, and heat stress by inducing a series of signaling cascades. Studies suggest that osmotic stress imposed by high-salt or drought stress is transmitted through at least two pathways: ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways ( Xiong and