The biosolid soil amendment N-Viro Soil (NVS) and a Streptomyces isolate (S 99-60) were tested for effects on root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] egg populations on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo). Application of 3% NVS (dry weight amendment/dry weight soil) in the soil mixture resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.01) suppression of RKN egg numbers on cantaloupe roots compared to all other treatments, including 1% NVS and untreated controls. Ammonia accumulation was higher with the 3% NVS amendment than with any other treatment. Adjustment of soil pH with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] to the same levels that resulted from NVS amendment did not suppress nematode populations. When cultured in yeast-malt extract broth and particularly in nutrient broth, S 99-60 was capable of producing a compound(s) that reduced RKN egg hatch and activity of second-stage juveniles. However, when this isolate was applied to soil and to seedling roots, no suppression of RKN egg populations was observed on cantaloupe roots. Combining S 99-60 with NVS or Ca(OH)2 did not result in enhanced nematode suppression compared to treatments applied individually. The results indicated that NVS application was effective at suppressing RKN populations through the accumulation of ammonia to levels lethal to the nematode in soil.
Susan L.F. Meyer, Inga A. Zasada, Mario Tenuta, and Daniel P. Roberts
Nicole L. Shaw and Daniel J. Cantliffe
Mini or “baby” vegetables have become increasingly popular items for restaurant chefs and retail sales. Squash (Cucurbita pepo) are generally open-field cultivated where climate, insect, and disease pressures create challenging conditions for growers and shippers who produce and market this delicate, immature fruit. In order to overcome these challenges, in Spring 2003 and 2004, 18 squash cultivars, including zucchini, yellow-summer, patty pan/scallop, and cousa types, were grown hydroponically in a passively ventilated greenhouse and compared for yield of “baby”-size fruit. Squash were graded as “baby” when they were less than 4 inches in length for zucchini, yellow-summer, and cousa types and less than 1.5 inches diameter for round and patty pan/scallop types. In both seasons, `Sunburst' (patty pan) produced the greatest number of baby-size fruit per plant, while `Bareket' (green zucchini) produced the least. The zucchini-types produced between 16 and 25 baby-size fruit per plant in 2003. The yellow summer squash-types produced on average 45 baby fruit per plant. The production of the patty pan/scallop types ranged from 50 to 67 baby-size fruit per plant depending on cultivar. The cousa types produced approximately 30 baby-size fruit. Total yields were lower in 2004 due to a shortened season. Squash plants will produce numerous high quality baby-sized fruit when grown hydroponically in a reduced pesticide environment of a greenhouse where they can be harvested, packaged, and distributed to buyers daily. The cultivars Hurricane, Raven, Gold Rush, Goldy, Sunray, Seneca Supreme, Supersett, Butter Scallop, Sunburst, Patty Green Tint, Starship, Magda, and HA-187 could be used for hydroponic baby squash production.
H.S. Costa, K.L. Robb, and C.A. Wilen
We thank T. Pinckard, J. Virzi, S. Parker, K. Stringer, and the Mycotech Corporation for technical assistance. This research was funded in part by the Univ. of California Integrated Pest Management Program. The cost of publishing this paper
Gerald E. Brust and Karen K. Rane
1 Integrated Pest Management Specialist, Southwest Purdue Agricultural Research Center. 2 Plant Pathologist, Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page
Richard E. Durham, John R. Hartman, and Monte P. Johnson
A home landscape integrated pest management (IPM) extension program has been initiated in the Univ. of Kentucky College of Agriculture. In order for this program to be effective, activities must integrate aspects of general landscape management with pest management. The main tenets of the project encompass four areas: making wise choices when selecting plants for the landscape; practicing proper planting and transplanting techniques; maintaining the health of the plant in the landscape using proper watering, fertilizing, and pruning techniques; and practicing an integrated approach to managing pests in the landscape. Outreach mechanisms for this project include the preparation and broadcast of radio scripts, the production of educational videos for use by county agents, print material, and addition of a home landscape IPM section to the Univ. of Kentucky IPM web page. Examples of these activities will be presented. The initial emphasis of the program is on woody landscape plants; however, other areas of landscape management, including annuals and perennials, turf, and home fruit and vegetables, will be added as time and funding allow. This outreach program may be the first exposure many people have to IPM principles and thus it will play an important roll in educating the public to integrated pest management practices that are a vital part of modern agriculture production.
Alvaro del Cid, Ramiro Ortiz, and H.R. Valenzuela
PRECODEPA was formed with the purpose of coordinating research and extension to improve small-farm potato production. The program involves 9 countries in North, Central America and the Caribbean with the cooperation of the International Potato Center (CIP). Research and extension work was planed based on identified bottlenecks. Work was coordinated when similar bottlenecks were identified in different regions and/or countries. The project strategies emphasized the following: training of personnel to coordinate the work between extension and research; development of integrated pest management (IPM) practices; technology generation and validation trials on farmers' fields, and market development for commercialization purposes. The success of this unique program should serve as a model for similar agricultural projects in the future.
Amy Fulcher, Dava Hayden, and Winston Dunwell
The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.
G.R. Brown, J. Hartman, R. Bessin, T. Jones, and J. Strang
Apple growers would like to use pesticides efficiently and diminish concerns about food safety and pesticide usage. The 1992 Apple IPM Program objectives were: 1) to demonstrate the application of Integrated Pest Management practices in commercial orchards and, 2) to provide the training and support needed to help these growers become self sufficient in IPM practices. Grower training meetings and regular scouting of the orchards were the primary educational methods. End-of-the-season evaluations of past and disease incidence were made. Except for Frogeye Leaf Spot, there were no significant differences in insect pest, disease levels or in fruit quality attributes in IPM versus standard blocks. The IPM blocks had significantly more mite incidence. Growers did produce commercially acceptable crops using IPM based decisions while reducing the average past control cost by $56 par acre. Educational programs did help growers to be more proficient in making IPM based decisions.
Julie A. McIntyre, Douglas A. Hopper, and Whitney Cranshaw
Various cultural, biological, and low toxicity methods of pest control that can be used as part of an Integrated Pest Management program for greenhouse growers were tested. Experiments were conducted to analyze alternative methods to control western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) on greenhouse crops, including an insect growth regulator (IGR), aluminized mulches, medial surface treatments involving irrigation, and predaceous nematodes. Persistence of thrips was determined by immersing excised flowers in 70% ethanol solution and pouring the extract through filter paper; thrips on the filter paper were counted. Various experiments were conducted over a 4-month period to determine which means provided the best control. The repeated use of an IGR was effective in reducing thrips populations. Preliminary evaluations indicate nematodes may provide better control than soil treatments.
D.S. Lawson, S.K. Brown, J.P. Nyrop, and W.H. Reissig
A barrier system for pest control consisting of insect-exclusionary cages covered with three types of mesh material was placed over columnar apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees. This system has been shown to provide arthropod control equivalent to insecticides. Light intensity, evaporation, and air and soil temperature were reduced inside the cages. Shoot elongation of columnar apple trees grown inside insect-exclusionary cages was significantly greater than that of trees grown outside the cages. However, this increased shoot growth was not due to etiolation. Tree performance was unaffected by insect-exclusionary cages. Fruit set and fruit soluble solids concentration were not reduced by the cages; however, fruit color intensity was reduced as the degree of shading from the mesh increased. These findings, in conjunction with high levels of arthropod control by insect-exclusionary cages, may allow insect-exclusionary cages to be used for evaluating integrated pest management thresholds, predator-prey relationships, and apple production without insecticides.