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Zhou Li, Yan Peng, and Bingru Huang

, 2004 ; Pessarakli, 2007 ). Drought and heat stress injury are typically characterized by leaf dehydration, reflected as a decline in leaf water content or accelerated leaf senescence due to loss of chlorophyll and photosynthetic activities, as well as

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Jinyu Wang, Patrick Burgess, Stacy A. Bonos, William A. Meyer, and Bingru Huang

photosynthetic carbohydrate synthesis ( Huang et al., 2014 ; Wahid et al., 2007 ). Prolonged heat stress typically induces lipid peroxidation and membrane instability with subsequent effects on chlorophyll integrity and net photosynthetic rates in cool

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Eric Watkins, Bingru Huang, and William A. Meyer

decline, including heat stress (HT) and drought stress (DS). Because this species is often found in nature growing in wetland habitats and areas that do not have high summer temperatures ( Davy, 1980 ; Hagerup, 1939 ), tufted hairgrass may be sensitive to

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Qingzhang Xu, Bingru Huang, and Zhaolong Wang

Turf quality of creeping bentgrass (Agrotis palustris L.) often declines during summer months. Reducing soil temperature alleviates bentgrass quality decline at supraoptimal air temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether reducing soil temperature during the night is more effective than during the day in improving shoot and root growth when air temperature was supraoptimal for creeping bentgrass. The experiment was conducted in growth chambers using water baths to manipulate soil temperatures. Plants were exposed to the following temperature treatments: 1) optimal air and soil temperature during the day and night (20/20 °C, day/night, control); 2) high air and soil temperature during the day and night (35/35 °C, day/night); 3) lower soil temperatures during the day (20/35, 25/35, and 30/35 °C, day/night); and 4) lower soil temperature during the night (35/20, 35/25, and 35/30 °C) while air temperature was maintained at 35 °C during the day and night. Turf quality (on 1-9 scale) increased to the level of 6.5, 3.0, and 2.5 by reducing day soil temperature to 20, 25, or 30 °C, respectively, at 28 days of treatment, compared to the quality of 2.0 at 35/35 °C. Turf quality increased from 2.0 at 35/35 °C to 7.0, 6.0, and 4.5, respectively, by 28 days of exposure to night temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C. Chlorophyll content, root number, and root weight also were increased by reducing day or night soil temperature, and the increases were more pronounced for reduced night temperatures than day temperatures. These results demonstrated that reduced night soil temperature was more effective than reduced day soil temperature in improving shoot and root growth in creeping bentgrass under high air temperature conditions.

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John Pote, Zhaolong Wang, and Bingru Huang

Knowledge of the level of soil temperatures that is detrimental for shoot and root growth for cool-season grasses may help develop heat-tolerant plants and effective management practices to improve summer performance. The objectives of this study were to determine the level and duration of high temperatures in the root zone that will induce decline for various growth and physiological parameters and to compare the responses of different physiological parameters and cultivars to high root-zone temperatures. Nine creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.] cultivars were subjected to eight root-zone temperatures (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 31, 35 °C) in water baths while exposed to a constant air temperature of 20 °C for 54 days. Root number, dry weight, and depth, active root biomass, turf quality, leaf cytokinin content, and canopy net photosynthetic rate (Pn), decreased in all nine cultivars as root-zone temperature increased from 20 to 35 °C, but the time and temperature at which the decline occurred varied for each parameter measured. Pn, cytokinin content, root number, and turf quality declined at 23, 27, 27, and 35 °C, respectively, after 28 days of exposure. Active root biomass, root number, root dry weight, turf quality, and rooting depth declined at 23, 25, 25, 25, and 35 °C, respectively, at 54 days. At a 31 °C root-zone temperature the decline in root number, cytokinin content, and turf quality occurred at 19, 37, and 47 days, respectively. The results suggest that root-zone temperatures of 23 °C or above this level were detrimental to root activities, Pn, and overall turf growth. Root and Pn decline at lower temperatures and earlier in the study than turf quality suggest that the disturbance of physiological activities of roots and leaves could lead to turfgrass quality decline at high root-zone temperatures.

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Xiaozhong Liu and Bingru Huang

Previous studies found that high soil temperature is more detrimental than high air temperature for the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris L.). The objective of the study was to investigate changes in fatty acid composition and saturation levels in leaves and roots for creeping bentgrass exposed to high soil temperature. Shoots and roots of `Penncross' plants were subjected to a differential air/soil temperature of 20/35 °C in a growth chamber. Soil temperature was controlled at 35 °C using an immersion circulating heater in water bath. Shoot injury induced by high soil temperature was evaluated by measuring level of lipid peroxidation expressed as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content, chlorophyll content, and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of leaves. MDA content increased while chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm decreased at high soil temperature. The content of total fatty acids and different species of fatty acids were analyzed in both leaves and roots. Total fatty acid content in leaves increased initially at 5 days of high soil temperature and then decreased at 15 days, while total fatty acid content in roots decreased, beginning at 5 days. Linolenic acid was the major fatty acid in leaves and linoleic acid and palmitic acid were the major fatty acids in roots of creeping bentgrass. Leaf content of all fatty acid components except oleic acid increased initially and then decreased at high soil temperature. Root content of all fatty acid components except palmitoleic acid and oleic acid decreased, beginning at 5 d of high soil temperature. Oleic acid in leaves and palmitoleic and oleic acid in roots did not change during the entire experimental period. Leaf content of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids increased during the first 5 to 10 days of high soil temperature and decreased at 15 and 25 days, respectively. Root content of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids decreased beginning at 5 days of high soil temperature. Double bond index decreased in both leaves and roots. High soil temperature induced changes in fatty acid composition and saturation levels in leaves and roots, and this could be associated with physiological damages in leaves even though only roots were exposed to high temperature.

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Chris A. Martin and Dewayne L. Ingram

Root growth of southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora Hort. `St. Mary') was studied for 16 weeks after an 8-week exposure to 30, 34, 38, or 42 ± 0.8C root-zone temperature (RZT) treatments applied for 6 hours daily. Immediately after RZT treatments, total root length of trees responded negatively to increased RZT in a quadratic pattern and the shoot and root dry weight of trees was similar. However, 8 and 16 weeks after RZT treatments, total root length responded linearly in a negative pattern to increased RZT, and shoot and root dry weight responded negatively to increased RZT in a linear and quadratic pattern, respectively. Root dry weight of trees exposed to 42C RZT treatment was 29% and 48% less than 38 and 34C RZT treatments, respectively, at week 8. By week 16, root dry weight as a function of RZT had changed such that the 42C RZT was 43% and 47% less than 38 and 34C RZT, respectively. Differences in root growth patterns between weeks 8 and 16 suggest that trees were able to overcome the detrimental effects of the 38C treatment, whereas growth suppression by the 42C treatment was still evident after 16 weeks.

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B. Warren Roberts and Jeffrey A. Anderson

Experiments were conducted from 1989 to 1991 to compare the effectiveness of various cultural techniques in reducing solar injury (SI) and increasing yield of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum `California Wonder') in southern Oklahoma. Treatments included black plastic mulch, white plastic mulch, straw mulch, living rye, spunbonded polypropylene used as a plant canopy shade, and bare soil. Marketable yields from plots shaded with spunbonded polypropylene rowcovers were equal to or greater than those from other treatments each year. Two out of 3 years, plots with a black plastic soil mulch had marketable yields lower than those from other treatments. SI was reduced by rowcover shade.

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Jeffrey A. Anderson

Acute high-temperature stress affects plant protein structure, leading to denaturation and aggregation. Although folding states of individual proteins have been extensively studied, little information is available on protein thermostability in complex mixtures. The objective of this study was to systematically examine protein stabilizing and destabilizing factors in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaf extracts using light transmission measurements. Increasing turbidity and subsequent precipitation were monitored in heated extracts as changes in light scattering at 540 nm. Factors evaluated included leaf tissue concentration, buffer pH, compounds that can stabilize enzymatic activity (chelating agent, complexer of phenolics, and a compatible solute), and destabilizing agents (nonionic detergent and divalent cation). Leaf extract thermostability decreased with increasing tissue concentration from 6 to 60 g fresh weight per liter of buffer. Turbidity and precipitation occurred after exposure to higher temperatures as buffer pH increased from 6.0 to 7.0. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (chelating agent) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (complexer of alkaloids and phenolics) had relatively small effects on extract thermostability. Nonionic detergent (Tween 20) destabilized extract thermostability, especially when incorporated in the extraction buffer. Calcium reduced thermostability by about 2 °C when added as CaCl2 at 1 mm. Calcium caused an increase in turbidity that was not directly associated with protein complexes and was not affected by treatment temperature. Mannitol, a compatible solute, increased the temperature at which turbidity and precipitation were induced, but only at high (500 mm) concentrations. Agents that stabilize or destabilize proteins at high temperatures can be assayed in plant extracts by measuring turbidity changes at 540 nm. These findings can be applied to functional studies determining the basis for differences in thermotolerance between genotypes and between control and acclimated tissues.

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John M. Ruter and Dewayne L. Ingram

Ilex crenata Thunb. `Rotundifolia' split-root plants were grown for 3 weeks with root zones at 30/30, 30/34, 30/38, 30/42, 34/34, 38/38, and 42/42C. The 38C root-zone treatment was the upper threshold for several growth and physiological characteristics. A portion of the root system grown at or near the optimum temperature could compensate, in terms of shoot growth, for part of the root system exposed to supraoptimal root-zone temperatures up to 38C. Higher root-zone temperatures did not affect short-term photosynthetic rates or root : shoot ratios, but altered photosynthate partitioning to various stem and root sinks. Although no differences were found for total 14C partitioned to the roots, partitioning of 14C into soluble and insoluble fractions and the magnitude of root respiration and exudation were influenced by treatment. Heating half of a root system at 38C increased the amount of 14C respired from the heated side and increased the total CO2respired from the nonheated (30C) half. Exposure of both root halves to 42C resulted in membrane damage that increased the loss of 14C-labeled photosynthates through leakage into the medium.