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Salfina S. Mampa, Martin M. Maboko, Puffy Soundy, and Dharini Sivakumar

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris), commonly known as table beet, is used as a staple in the diet of many people through the consumption of the entire plant, leaf, and the root. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of nitrogen (N) application and leaf harvest percentage on the yield and quality of roots and leaves of beetroot. The treatment design was a randomized complete block design with five levels of N (0, 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg·ha−1) combined with three leaf harvest percentages (0, 30, and 50) and replicated three times. The first leaf harvest was initiated 35 days after transplanting (DAT) by removing the outer matured leaves and the second harvest occurred 80 DAT by removing all the leaves. The results showed increases in leaf and root yield with an increase in N application. Nitrogen application at 90 and 120 kg·ha−1 increased fresh leaf weight, leaf number, and fresh and dry root weight, including root diameter and length with the exception of leaf area which was significantly higher at 120 kg·ha−1 N. Magnesium and iron leaf content, and N root content were significantly improved by the application of 120 kg·ha−1 N. Leaf harvest percentage did not have a significant effect on leaf yield or leaf and root mineral content. However, dry root weight was significantly reduced by the 50% leaf harvest. Leaf harvest at 30% or 50% increased total protein content of the roots of beetroot, whereas an increase in N application decreased concentration of total proteins. Results demonstrate that leaf and root yield, as well as magnesium, zinc, and iron leaf content, increased with the application of 120 kg·ha−1 N, whereas 30% leaf harvest did not negatively affect root yield.

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Geoffrey Meru and Cecilia McGregor

Egusi watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai subsp. mucosospermus var. egusi (C. Jeffrey) Mansf.] is known for its distinctive fleshy-pericarp seed phenotype and high seed oil percentage (SOP). The seed is part of the daily diet in West Africa where it is used in soups and stews or processed for cooking oil. Genetic mapping studies have revealed that most of the variation in SOP between egusi and normal, non-egusi seed is explained by the egusi (eg) locus, which is also associated with the unique seed phenotype. However, variation in SOP is also observed within egusi and normal seed types although the basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. A high correlation between kernel percentage (KP) and SOP has been observed in watermelon and other crops, and recent data also suggest an association between seed size and SOP in watermelon. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship among SOP, KP, and seed size traits in watermelon and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the latter traits to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for traits correlated with SOP. KP showed a significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with SOP in both egusi and normal seed types, whereas seed size traits showed significant negative correlations with SOP. QTL associated with KP and seed size traits in normal seed were colocalized with a previously mapped locus for SOP on linkage group (LG) 2, but in egusi seed, a QTL explaining 33% of phenotypic variation in KP was localized on LG 7. The results of this study show that SOP in watermelon is correlated with KP and seed size, but KP is associated with different loci in normal and egusi seed phenotypes.

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Manuel C. Palada, Thomas J. Kalb, and Thomas A. Lumpkin

AVRDC–The World Vegetable Center was established in 1971 as a not-for-profit international agricultural research institute whose mission is to reduce malnutrition and poverty among the poor through vegetable research and development. Over the past 30 years, AVRDC has developed a vast array of international public goods. The Center plays an essential role in bringing international and interdisciplinary teams together to develop technologies, empower farmers, and address major vegetable-related issues in the developing world. In its unique role, AVRDC functions as a catalyst to 1) build international and interdisciplinary coalitions that engage in vegetable and nutrition issues; 2) generate and disseminate improved germplasm and technologies that address economic and nutritional needs of the poor; 3) collect, characterize, and conserve vegetable germplasm resources for worldwide use; and 4) provide globally accessible, user-friendly, science-based, appropriate technology. In enhancing and promoting vegetable production and consumption in developing world, AVRDC's research programs contribute to increased productivity of the vegetable sector, equity in economic development in favor of rural and urban poor, healthy and more diversified diets for low-income families, environmentally friendly and safe production of vegetables, and improved sustainability of cropping systems. Recent achievements at AVRDC that greatly impact tropical horticulture in the developing world include virus-resistant tomatoes raising farmers income, hybrid sweet pepper breaking the yield barrier in the tropics, flood-resistant chili peppers opening new market opportunities, broccoli varieties for monsoon season, pesticide-free eggplant and leafy vegetable production systems and fertilizer systems that protect the environment. Beyond vegetable crops, AVRDC is playing an important role in expanding and promoting research and development efforts for high value horticultural crops, including fruit, ornamentals, and medicinal plants through its new Global Horticulture Initiative. AVRDC believes that horticulture crop production provides jobs and is an engine for economic growth. The important role AVRDC–The World Vegetable Center plays in developing and promoting tropical horticultural crops is discussed in this paper.

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Rolland Agaba, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Patrick Rubaihayo, Silver Tumwegamire, Andrew Ssenyonjo, Robert O.M. Mwanga, Jean Ndirigwe, and Wolfgang J. Grüneberg

The amount of genotypic and phenotypic variability that exists in a species is important for selection and initiating breeding programs. Yam bean is grown locally in tropical countries of the Americas and Asia for their tasty storage roots, which usually have low dry matter content. The crop was recently introduced in Uganda and other East and Central African countries to supplement iron (Fe) and protein content in diets. This study aimed to estimate genetic variability for root yield and quality traits among 26 yam bean accessions in Uganda. A randomized complete block design was used with two replications across two ecogeographical locations and two seasons during 2012 and 2013. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine quality of storage root samples. Significant differences among genotypes were observed for all traits except root protein, zinc (Zn), and phosphorus contents. Genotypic variance components () were significant for storage root fresh yield (SRFY), storage root dry matter (SRDM), storage root dry yield (SRDY), vine yield (VNY), fresh biomass yield (FBY), and storage root starch (STA) and Fe contents. For traits with significant the broad sense heritability estimates ranged from 58.4% for SRDY to 83.6% for FBY; and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for SRFY (66%), SRDY (53.3%), VNY (60.5%), and FBY (59%), but low to medium for SRDM (22.6%), STA (15.1%), and Fe (21.3%). Similarly, the genotypic coefficients of variation were high for SRFY (56.7%), SRDY (53.3%), VNY (55%), and FBY (53.9%); and low for SRDM (20%), STA (12.4%), and Fe (17.8%). There were strong positive correlations between SRFY and both SRDY (r = 0.926) and FBY (r = 0.962), but low-to-moderate correlations among quality traits. It should be possible to breed for high dry matter yam beans by using low dry matter accessions due to the observed genetic variation ( = 9.3%2), which is important if the high dry matter Pachyrhizus tuberosus accessions (known as chuin) from Peru cannot be accessed. This study indicated substantial genetic variation for yield and quality traits in yam bean, demonstrating potential for adaptability to growing conditions and consumer needs in East and Central Africa and for genetic improvement through selection.

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Howard F. Harrison Jr, Trevor R. Mitchell, Joseph K. Peterson, W. Patrick Wechter, George F. Majetich, and Maurice E. Snook

Caffeoylquinic acid compounds are widespread in plants. They protect plants against predation and infection and may have several beneficial functions in the human diet. The contents of chlorogenic acid and the 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5- isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) in the storage root tissues of 16 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] genotypes were determined. Averaged over genotypes, the contents of the four compounds were highest in the cortex, intermediate in the stele, and lowest in the periderm. Among the genotypes, chlorogenic acid contents ranged from 16 to 212 μg·g−1 in periderm, from 826 to 7274 μg·g−1 in cortex, and from 171 to 4326 μg·g−1 in stele. The 3,5-DCQA isomer comprised over 80% of total DCQA. In most genotypes, 3,5-DCQA and chlorogenic acid contents were similar in cortex and stele tissues, but chlorogenic acid was lower than 3,5-DCQA in periderm tissue. Among the 16 genotypes, total DCQA contents ranged from 0 to 1775 μg·g−1 dry weight in periderm, from 883 to 8764 μg·g−1 in cortex, and from 187 to 4768 μg·g−1 in stele. The large differences found in a small germplasm collection suggest that selecting or breeding sweetpotato genotypes with high caffeoylquinic acid content is possible. The four caffeoylquinic acid compounds comprised over 3% of the dry weight of storage roots of the sweetpotato relative, bigroot morningglory [Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G.F.W. Meyer], indicating that it may be a good source for the compounds. The effect of DCQAs isolated from sweetpotato and I. pandurata tissue and caffeic and chlorogenic acid standards were tested in proso millet (Panicum milliaceum L.), Fusarium solani (Sacc.) Mart., and bacterial growth bioassays. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 3,5-DCQA were most inhibitory in millet and F. solani bioassays, but 3,5-DCQA was the least inhibitory compound in bacterial growth bioassays. Their activity in the bioassays suggests that the caffeoyl quinic acid compounds contribute to the allelopathic potential and resistance to root diseases of some sweetpotato clones.

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Beiquan Mou and Guangyao Wang

, and ornament for centuries. Indigenous horticultural crops play an especially important role in human nutrition. Most Asians do not have the economic ability or habit to take vitamin/mineral supplements. Many Asian diets are high in native vegetables

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Duane W. Green

nontraditional information for each fruit, giving information that is often lacking in other introductory fruit books. Specifically, information on medicinal properties, folklore, and contributions to the diet are most useful and interesting additions

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Irwin L. Goldman

). There is a body of research demonstrating that consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in the context of a regular diet can contribute to positive health outcomes ( Bellavia et al., 2013 ). The World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted

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Jules Janick and Kim Hummer

relationships between plants and health have been and continue to be of great concern for humankind considering both diet and medicinal uses. Antiquity. Plant cures as well as nutrition became part of ancient medicine based on the philosophical concepts in

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David G. Himelrick

—including soils and climate, propagation, planting design, training and pruning, and pest problems. Next is Harvest, Postharvest Handling—including maturity, harvest method, postharvest handling, and storage. Each of the chapters ends with a Contribution to Diet