Search Results

You are looking at 111 - 120 of 475 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Open access

F. V. Pumphrey, R. E. Ramig, and R. R. Allmaras


Simple correlations between pea yields and October-through-March, April, May, and June precipitation were 0.52, –0.03, 0.22, and 0.44, respectively; the correlation between heat degree (above 25.6°C) day sum during blooming and pod filling with yield was –0.42. Multiple regression coefficients indicated that October-through-March, April, May, and June precipitation contributed 10, –3, 13, and 16 kg/ha per mm, respectively, to the yield. Each degree day above 25.6°C decreased the yield by 13 kg/ha. All coefficients except for April precipitation were highly significant. Approximately 65% of the year-to-year variation in pea yields was accounted for by these weather variables. Overwinter precipitation and excess heat each accounted for 27% of the pea yield variability. This model can be used to project pea yields based on the current moisture situation in this geographic area. Probabilistic description of weather information can be used along with this model to project probable pea yields.

Free access

Rafel Socias i Company, Ossama Kodad, José M. Ansón, and José M. Alonso

The almond ( Prunus amygdalus Batsch) breeding program of the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA) of Aragón aims to develop new self-compatible and late-blooming cultivars to solve the main problem detected in

Free access

Christopher L. Owens, J.F. Hancock, and A.F. Iezzoni

Sour cherry and strawberry are examples of two Rosaceous species that often suffer crop reductions due to spring freezes. Breeding for improved floral freezing tolerance has the potential to mitigate the susceptibility of these plants to spring frosts. In model plant systems, researchers have been able to identify genes that play a role in freezing tolerance by initially searching for mRNAs regulated in response to cold temperatures. To search for cold-responsive freezing-tolerance genes in strawberry and sour cherry, it is necessary to first define their cold acclimation response. To test the hypothesis that sour cherry and strawberry flowers have the ability to cold acclimate, blooming plants were exposed to 4 °C and 16 h light for 14 days. Sour cherry styles and strawberry receptacles from open, fully developed flowers were excised, and electrolyte leakage curves were generated over a range of subzero temperatures. The temperature at which 50% electrolyte leakage (EL50) occurred was used to compare treatments. The flowers of two strawberry cultivars were tested for the ability to cold acclimate. Non-acclimated `Chandler' receptacles had an EL50 of -2.9 °C, while non-acclimated `Honeoye' had an EL50 of -3.4 °C. Conversely, acclimated `Chandler' receptacles had an EL50 of -7.7 and acclimated `Honeoye' receptacles had an EL50 of -8.7 °C, both are significantly different from non-acclimated values (P ≤ 0.01). Additionally, sour cherry styles were collected from the field at full bloom from a mapping population of 86 individuals from the cross `Rheinische Schattenmorelle' × `Erdi Botermo' and acclimated as previously described. The EL50 of the 86 progeny ranged from approximately -2.0 to -6.0 °C.

Free access

Dennis Deyton, Carl E. Sams, Jim R. Ballington, and John Cummins

Trials were conducted in 2004 to compare the effects of soybean oil formulations and concentrations on flowering and fruit thinning of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberries. Mature `Climax' bushes near Spring City, Tenn., were sprayed to runoff on 10 Feb. with water, or 9% soybean oil in the formulations TNsoy11, TNsoy12, TNsoy13, TNsoy14, or Golden Natur'l (GN). In a second trial, 3-year-old `Legacy' southern highbush plants at Spring Hill, Tenn., were sprayed on 11 Feb. with 0%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% GN. A similar trial was sprayed on 5 Mar. at Fletcher, N.C., using young plants of various Southern highbush cultivars. Each formulation of soybean oil (9%) delayed bud development and flower anthesis of `Climax' bushes. Bloom opening on `Legacy' bushes was delayed by 2 to 6 days with sprays of ≥9% GN, with higher concentrations causing more delay. However, flower bud mortality of `Legacy' plants was greater when sprayed with the higher oil concentrations. `Legacy' plants sprayed with 0%, 6%, and ≥9% oil had 0%, 30% and ≥70% bud mortality, respectively, at 36 days after treatment. `Legacy' plants sprayed with 12% and 15% oil sprays had an estimated 24% and 13%, respectively, of a crop load compared to the estimated 100% crop load on control plants. Flower bud development, flower bud mortality, crop load and berry size (across cultivars) of Southern highbush cultivars at Fletcher were not affected by oil treatments. Results were variable among trials, perhaps due to factors such as cultivars, timing of application (date), maturity of plants, environmental conditions, etc. There is potential for soybean oil formulations to be used as a chemical thinner as well as to delay blooming.

Full access

Chiwon W. Lee

Velvet flower (Salpiglossis sinuata, Solanaceae) can be used as an excellent demonstration plant for horticultural crop breeding classes. Salpiglossis produces large trumpetlike flowers exhibiting an assortment of corolla colors and pigmentation patterns. The pistil is large (3 to 4 cm or 1.2 to 1.6 inches long) with a sticky stigmatal tip and flowers can be easily emasculated prior to anthesis. The large pollen grains are shed in tetrads which can be separated and placed on the stigmatal surface. It takes eight to nine weeks from seeding to blooming, with a prolific flowering cycle that comes in flushes. Numerous seeds (about 750 per capsule) are obtained in three weeks after self- or cross-pollination. The influences of three genes that control flower color and pigmentation pattern can be conveniently demonstrated with their dominant and recessive alleles. The R gene controls flower color with red (RR or Rr) being dominant over yellow (rr). The D gene controls the density of pigmentation with solid (DD or Dd) color being dominant over dilute (dd) color. Corolla color striping is controlled by the St gene with striped (stst) being recessive to nonstriped (StSt or Stst) pattern. By using diploid lines of genotypes RRDD (red, solid), RRdd (red, dilute), or rrdd (yellow, dilute) and their crosses, students can easily observe a dominant phenotypic expression in the F1 hybrid and the digenic 9:3:3:1 segregation ratio in the F2 progeny. Another gene (C) that controls flower opening can also be used to show its influence on cleistogamous (closed, selfpollinated, CC or Cc) versus normal chasmogamous (open-pollinated, cc) corolla development. In addition, the induction and use of polyploid (4x) plants in plant breeding can also be demonstrated using this species.

Free access

Heidi A. Kratsch

Alnusmaritima may have potential for use in home and commercial landscapes in northern Utah. This fast-growing, fall-blooming shrub is cold-hardy to USDA hardiness zone 3b and tolerant of nutrient-poor soils and full sun. Because this taxon is native to low-elevation wetlands, I seek to determine its response to the high desert soils and climate of northern Utah. My specific objective was to test germination and survival of plants from seed sowed in three diverse soil types typical of the Wasatch front in north-central Utah. Seeds were rinsed with distilled water and cold-stratified in darkness for 16 weeks between wet filter paper in sealed petri dishes. Stratified seeds were sowed in flats filled with soil from each of three sites at the Utah Botanical Center in Kaysville and held in a greenhouse. Seeds planted in flats filled with soilless germination mix served as controls. Flats with 60 seeds were experimental units, and each medium was replicated three times. Soils ranged from silty loam to loam, nitrate-N was 3.2 to 5.4 mg·kg-1, and there was 1.4% to 2.9% organic matter. Germination rates were highest in the soilless mix (50%). Of the three soil types, the highest germination rates (24%) occurred in a loamy soil high in organic matter (2.9%). Rates were similar (12.5% and 13%) in the other two soils. Seeds of A. maritima can germinate in soils typical of urban landscapes in northern Utah, so both the potential for invasiveness and the performance of plants in the landscape of northern Utah are being evaluated.

Free access

R.E. Moran, S.M. Southwick, K.G. Weis, and B. Lampinen

Secondary or “rat-tail” bloom, a major site for fireblight infection of `Bartlett' pear, comprised 10% of the total bloom in 1997 and 20% in 1998. We are striving to find production practices that can be economically applied to reduce the number of “rat-tails.” Of the five known types of secondary clusters in pear, four occur on `Bartlett', the most numerous being types I and V. Type I rat-tails occur on the bourse at the base of normal clusters and bloom from 10 to 30 days after normal bloom. Type V rat-tails occur mostly at pruning sites and have one to three flowers per cluster, blooming 20 to 50 days after normal bloom. GA 3 or GA4+7 + BA were applied at 100 mg•L-1 in 1997 to reduce rat-tail bloom in 1998. In 1998, neither GA3 nor GA4+7 + BA had an effect on normal bloom or type I rattails. GA3 reduced type V rat-tails when applied at either 2 June, 2 July, or 15 Aug. but had no effect on type V clusters when applied at full bloom, petal fall, 16 June, or 15 July. GA4+7 + BA reduced the number of type V rat-tails when applied at either 2 June, 16 June, 2 July, and 15 July but had no effect when applied at full bloom, petal fall, or 15 Aug. Dormant pruning horizontal shoots resulted in as many rat-tails as vertical shoots, and heading cuts a similar number as stubbing cuts. Dormant pruning 1-year wood resulted in fewer rat-tails than 2-year wood. Summer pruning 21 or 49 days after bloom resulted in fewer rat-tails than pruning 10 days after harvest, but was similar to pruning 89 days after bloom. These and other results from ongoing work will be presented toward development of an integrated fire blight reduction strategy.

Free access

Yin-Tung Wang and Lori L. Gregg

Bare-root seedling plants of a white-flowered Phalaenopsis hybrid [P. arnabilis (L.) Blume × P. Mount Kaala `Elegance'] were grown in five potting media under three fertility levels (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g·liter-1) from a 20N-8.6P-16.6K soluble fertilizer applied at every irrigation. The five media included 1) 1 perlite:1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal (by volume); 2)2 perlite:2 composted pine bark:1 vermiculite; 3) composted pine bark; 4) 3 perlite:3 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal; and 5) 1 perlite:1 rockwool. During the first flowering season, plants in the 1 perlite: 1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal medium had slightly fewer but larger flowers and thicker stalks (section of the inflorescence between the base and oldest flower) than those in the 1 perlite:1 rockwool medium. Medium had no effect on stalk length. Two media (3 perlite: 3 Metro Mix 250: 1 charcoal and 1 perlite: 1 rockwool) resulted in root systems that were inferior to those in the others. Fertilizer level had no effect on bloom date or flower size. Regardless of medium, increasing the fertility from 0.25 to 1.0 g·liter-1 increased flower count, stalk diameter and length, and leaf production following flowering. During the second flowering season, media had limited effect on plant performance. Increased fertility promoted earlier inflorescence emergence and blooming. Higher fertilizer rates also caused a linear increase in the number of flowers and inflorescences per plant, and in stalk diameter, total leaf count, and leaf size.

Open access

Abdul R. Kamali and Norman F. Childers


Boron shortage resulted in limited growth, terminal dieback, pronounced bark lenticels and bark splitting; waxy, thick, brittle foliage; early defoliation; early leaf development after dormancy; fewer flower buds; longer blooming period; reduced pollen viability; poor fruit set and quality; fruit cracking and dry brown corky spots adjacent to the pit. Boron excess caused leaf distortion, shoot dieback, pit splitting, and leaf bud mortality after dormancy; increased break of lateral shoots; fewer flower buds; reduced pollen viability and fruit set; and faded flowers and anthers. Correction of B shortage or excess resulted in normal growth, flower bud formation, pollen viability, and fruit set and quality.

Based on growth response, symptom expression and fruiting, the B content of peach leaves can be correlated in the following manner: severe deficiency, less than 10 ppm; deficient, 11 to 17 ppm; low, 18 to 30 ppm; optimum, 31 to 59 ppm; high, 60 to 80 ppm; and excess, 81 to 155 ppm. There was a positive correlation between mean B content of leaves and that of the fruits. The symptoms of B injury suggested the following classification of the B status in the fruits; deficient, less than 10 ppm; normal, 11 to 29 ppm; and excess, 44 to 124 ppm. An application of fritted trace elements at the rate of 20–160 lb/A to sand in the crocks gave good vegetative growth the first season but was inadequate to support normal growth and fruiting the second season. An additional application of 40 or more lb/A near the end of the second growing season afforded normal growth, fruiting and fruit quality for the third season.

Open access

Huan Hu, Nan Chai, Haoxiang Zhu, Rui Li, Renwei Huang, Xia Wang, Daofeng Liu, Mingyang Li, Xingrong Song, and Shunzhao Sui

Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is one of the most popular winter-blooming species. Effective vegetative propagation is necessary for commercial usage and protection of wintersweet. In the current study, the four factors, namely hormone type (A), hormone concentration (B), soaking duration (C), and medium (D), were assessed using an L16 (44) orthogonal test design. The hormone types include ABT (A1), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (A2), indole butyric acid (IBA) (A3), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (A4); the hormone concentrations include 100 mg·L−1 (B1), 500 mg·L−1 (B2), 1000 mg·L−1 (B3), and 1500 mg·L−1 (B4); the soaking durations include 5 seconds (C1), 5 minutes (C2), 30 minutes (C3), and 3 hours (C4); and the mediums include perlite: peat in the ratios 1:0 (D1), 2:1 (D2), 1:1 (D3), and 1:2 (D4). The results showed that hormone and proper medium could significantly improve the cutting survival, rooting, and sprouting, whereas poor factor combinations, especially high hormone concentrations combined with long soaking durations may be threatened to the cuttings and rooting. In actual experiments, we successfully obtained an excellent rooting percentage (62.22%) of wintersweet from treatment No. 5 (A2B1C2D3), which is perlite and peat (1:1) as the medium and soaking the cuttings in 100 mg·L−1 NAA for 5 minutes as the hormone treatment. This combination can already meet the requirements for commercial production. A range analysis showed that the medium and hormone concentration were the most important factors affecting the cutting of wintersweet. An analysis of variance also showed that the medium and hormone concentration can significantly or extremely significantly affect most cutting indicators. Moreover, our results revealed that an orthogonal design method is an effective tool for establishing an improved technique for cutting propagation.