profiles, and increased levels of turfgrass stress ( Devitt et al., 2004 ). As such, we initiated a long-term monitoring program to address these concerns, many of which have already been reported on ( Devitt et al., 2004 , 2005 , 2007 ). In this article
Anne M. Lockett, Dale A. Devitt, and Robert L. Morris
Geungjoo Lee, Ronny R. Duncan, and Robert N. Carrow
1 Postdoctoral associate. 2 Professor; to whom reprint requests should be addressed. 3 Professor. This paper is a portion of a thesis submitted by G.J. Lee. Funding from the U.S. Golf Association and Georgia Turfgrass Foundation Trust is
James D. McCurdy, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal
-unsustainable monoculture cultivation, which contributes to insect habitat loss and fragmentation ( Gels et al., 2002 ). For these reasons, the turfgrass industry is experiencing new demands for ecologically and economically sustainable maintenance options. Inclusion of
Xiaoya Cai, Laurie E. Trenholm, Jason Kruse, and Jerry B. Sartain
St. augustinegrass [ Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] is widely used as a warm-season turfgrass. This is one of the most popular turfgrass species used for home lawns throughout the southern United States. St. augustinegrass has better shade
Grant J. Klein and Robert L. Green
Turfgrass management best management practices (BMPs) encompass a wide variety of activities, including fertilization, irrigation, mowing, pest control, and soil management. Little attention is given to determining just how effective information regarding BMPs is being assimilated and used by professional turfgrass managers. The objectives of this study were to assess the current perception and implementation of selected turfgrass BMPs and to determine whether or not those perceptions and implementations differed 1) between turfgrass advisors and managers and 2) between general and sports turfgrass managers. Professionals from the turfgrass industry, with an average of 13 years of experience and largely comprised of decision-makers (88%), were surveyed at the University of California, Riverside, Turfgrass Research Conference and Field Day in Fall 1998 and 1999. Turfgrass managers, especially sports turfgrass managers, were found to be the most committed to implementing the BMPs in the survey. Overall, survey respondents considered BMPs to be important and not highly difficult to implement. Limitations to the adoption of BMPs were a lack of financial backing, employee education, and necessary time—all of which could be remedied with a sufficient commitment of resources by the turfgrass industry.
Travis Wayne Shaddox and Joseph Bryan Unruh
Wetting agents are commonly used on golf course bermudagrass ( Cynodon sp.) putting greens to manage soil moisture. Turfgrass quality on putting greens can be restricted if hydrophobic conditions arise, and wetting agents have been used to
Ross Braun, Jack Fry, Megan Kennelly, Dale Bremer, and Jason Griffin
, 2004 ). In the transition zone, where both cool- and warm-season grasses are options, zoysiagrass requires fewer inputs of pesticides and fertilizers than most cool-season turfgrass species ( Fry et al., 2008 ). However, in the transition zone, one
Vermicomposting is the process of fragmenting organic wastes with certain species of earthworms. A variety of vermicomposts are being marketed as fertilizer materials for turfgrass management, particularly in the golf course industry. In 2002 and 2003, field trials were conducted on established kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) in Columbus, Ohio, to evaluate the use of vermicomposted animal, food, paper, and turfgrass clipping waste materials as a turfgrass fertilizer under home lawn maintenance conditions. Visual quality of the plots was significantly higher for 2 weeks after application of paper vermicompost, regardless of application rate. Few other differences in either turfgrass visual quality of clipping yields were observed during a 6-week period after application, regardless of application rate or source of vermicompost. Based on the results of these studies, the use of vermicompost as a fertilizer material on established turfgrass is not warranted.
Patricia Sweeney, Robert Golembiewski, and Karl Danneberger
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from leaf tissue extractions are effective for discrimination of turfgrass varieties. The usefulness of RAPD markers for turfgrass variety identification can be enhanced by use of seed rather than leaf tissue for DNA extraction. To determine whether DNA extracted from turfgrass seed was suitable for amplification, DNA was extracted from bulk samples and individual seeds of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], chewings fescue (Festuca rubra var. commutata Gaud.), Poa annua L., Poa supina Schrad., creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustrus (Huds.) Farw.], Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). All samples were successfully amplified using an arbitrary primer. Amplification intensity varied among species. With an almost infinite number of arbitrary primers available, it is likely that suitable primers can be found to amplify DNA from most turfgrass species. Amplification of turfgrass seed DNA, whether bulk or individual seed, is possible and should prove more useful than amplification of leaf tissue DNA for discrimination of turfgrass varieties.
Longyi Yuan, Yang Gao, and Deying Li
Spills of petroleum-based products on turfgrass happen primarily because of equipment failure or improper refueling. Hydrocarbons are a major component of fuels and hydraulic fluids, and are hazardous to the environment ( Aislabie et al., 2006