are desirable for fruit-growing and breeding studies ( Arbeloa et al., 2009 ; Bridgen, 1994 ). For this purpose, some growth regulators such as GA 3 and cytokinin as antagonists of ABA ( Nicolas et al., 1996 ) are used to induce the germination of
Bekir Şan, Adnan Nurhan Yildirim, and Fatma Yildirim
One-year-old trees of three apple selections [NY73334-35 (A), NY75414-1 (B), and NY75413-30 (C)] from the Geneva Breeding Program were transplanted into an orchard. While at the nursery, the trees were treated with Promalin and Accel, by themselves or in combination, to promote lateral branch formation (feathering). After trees were transplanted, no growth regulators were applied to the trees. One year after transplanting, treated trees of B and C had produced more feathers than the controls. This was particularly pronounced with the very difficult-to-branch selection C. No differences between chemical treatments were found. Regardless of selection, each chemical treatment significantly influenced increase in total extension growth compared to the control and contributed to rapid build up of tree structure. There were no differences between the treatments in tree height, tree caliper, or the number of spurs.
David W. Ramming
The author thanks Joe Goffreda for providing pollen of D33-1-86227 breeding line. Evaluation supported in part by California Tree Fruit Agreement and University of California Kearney Agricultural Center.
Ahmed Mahhou and Frank G. Dennis Jr.
Morocco ranks fifth among the nations of the world in almond (Prunus dulcis L.) production, and contains many zones where climatic conditions are ideal for this species. Seedling trees are responsible for more than half the total production, although grafted trees are usually much more productive per hectare. A large seedling population represents an important gene pool, both for a breeding program and for selection of superior genotypes adapted to Moroccan conditions.
Lili Zhou, Frank Kappel, Cheryl Hampson, Paul A. Wiersma, and Guus Bakkeren
Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to analyze the relationships between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars and selections from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre in Summerland, Canada. Six pairs of preselected primers were used for the analysis of a total of 67 cultivars and selections. Scoring the absence and presence of 118 polymorphic DNA fragments produced a unique binary code for each cultivar and selection. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using these 118 polymorphic fragments, one tree for 55 related cultivars and selections from the Summerland breeding program and the other for 23 self-incompatible cultivars of differing origins. The reliability of AFLP DNA fingerprints was confirmed by correlating relationships revealed by AFLP profiles with known genetic relationships of some sweet cherry cultivars and by a blind test for cultivar identification. Results indicate that AFLP analysis is a good technique to evaluate genetic distance and relationships in a sweet cherry breeding population.
65 POSTER SESSION 7 Breeding/Fruits & Nuts
Nursery trees of new, promising apple selections [NY-75334-35 (A), NY-75414-1 (B), and NY-75413-30 (C)] from the Geneva breeding program exhibit a distinct apical dominant growth pattern characterized by poor lateral-shoot formation (feathering). To induce feathering, the trees were foliar-treated singly or sequentially with various concentrations of Promalin (1.8%w/w GA4+7 + 1.8%w/w 6BAP) and Accel (0.18% w/w GA4+7 + 1.8% w/w 6BAP), by themselves and in combination. Regardless of branching agent, concentration, and type of application, treated trees, as compared to the control, on average, induced 11.3 vs. 2.2, 6.6 vs. 0.4, and 6.6 vs. 2.0 feathers/tree for selections A, B, and C, respectively. In most instances, higher concentrations of both chemicals induced more feathers than lower concentrations. Tree height and caliper were less affected than lateral-shoot production.
Virginia Miller-Roether, Paul E. Read, and Erika Szendrak
The American Chestnut Foundation (ACF) has conducted a breeding program aimed at developing blight-resistant chestnut trees exhibiting the phenotype of American Chestnut (Castanea dentata). We developed a protocol for in vitro micropropagation and multiplication of candidate blight-resistant plants from the ACF breeding program. The protocol included forcing dormant shoots to budbreak, culture establishment, shoot multiplication, inducing a functional root system on the microcuttings produced by this system and establishment of autotrophic plants. Because Castanea spp. is recalcitrant to rooting, a unique bilayer method of rooting was developed. The unique bilayer consisted of a clear basal medium of 50% DKW and 50% WPM (Long and Preece), with a continuous level of 0.01 mg IBA/L and 0.2 mg BA/L. The clear basal medium was over-laid with an opaque layer. Rooting response occurred for 27 of the 31 genotypes at various frequencies. Rooted plantlets were planted in 50% peat: 50% perlite in order to become autotrophic and acclimated. Acclimated trees were planted in 10″ × 2″ Deepots® and placed in the greenhouse. These trees exhibited a very vigorous functional root system. Acclimated trees were hardened off, placed in cold storage (≈4-5 °C) for 5 months. All trees placed in cold storage broke dormancy for spring growth and ≈100 trees were sent to ACF for planting into field trials.
Dale E. Kester and Thomas M. Gradziel
16 ORAL SESSION 5 (Abstr. 033-439) Fruits/Nuts: Breeding and Genetics
Thomas M. Gradziel and Dale E. Kester
33 POSTER SESSION 6 (Abstr. 513-529) Fruits/Nuts/Berries: Breeding and Genetics