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Lu Gan, Xunzhong Zhang, Silu Liu, and Shuxia Yin

positive effect on perennial ryegrass under cadmium stress ( Lou et al., 2015 ). As one of the compatible solutes in plants, GB could protect membranes against oxidative damage by stimulating antioxidative enzymes such as SOD (EC, CAT (EC 1

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Zhimin Yang, Jingjin Yu, Emily Merewitz, and Bingru Huang

to examine whether improved stress tolerance was associated with the mitigation of lipid peroxidation and enhancement in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Mature sod pieces (2–3 cm thick) of ‘Penncross

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Qi Wang, Rui Zhao, Qihang Chen, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Liqi Chen, and Xiaonan Yu

quantified using the method of Bates et al. (1973) . Soluble protein content was determined using the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 staining method ( Bradford, 1976 ). The measurement and calculation of SOD (EC activity were based on the

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Huifei Shen, Bing Zhao, Jingjing Xu, Xizi Zheng, and Wenmei Huang

(1977) , SOD activity was determined by measuring its ability to inhibit the photoreduction of 50% nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT). The 3-mL reaction solution included 13 m m methionine, 75 n m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 50 μ m NBT, 1.3 μ m

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Longxing Hu, Zehui Huang, Shuqian Liu, and Jinmin Fu

. The homogenate was centrifuged at 13,000 g n for 15 min at 4 °C. The supernatants were used as the crude extract for SOD, CAT, APX, and DHAR assay as we described before ( Hu et al., 2012a , 2012b ). Soluble proteins were quantified by the method of

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Qiang Liu and Yiwei Jiang

measured using the method of Bradford (1976) . The activities of SOD, CAT, POD, and APX were assayed by using the methods of Zhang and Kirkham (1996) with minor modifications ( Liu and Jiang, 2015 ). Lipid peroxidation was measured in terms of MDA

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Xu-Wen Jiang, Cheng-Ran Zhang, Wei-Hua Wang, Guang-Hai Xu, and Hai-Yan Zhang

to determine enzyme activity. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were determined according to Zhang and Li (2011) . SOD activity was detected by the prevention of the photochemical reduction of nitro

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Abu Shamim Mohammad Nahiyan and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

under environmental stresses such as plant disease, drought, and temperature ( Moghaddam et al., 2006 ; Sahoo et al., 2007 ). As for mycorrhizal plants, Garmendia et al. (2006) reported that disease tolerance and an increase in SOD activity occurred

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Fei Xiong, Jieren Liao, Yuanchun Ma, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, and Xujun Zhu

with the grinding medium consisting of 50 m m phosphate buffer (pH 7.8), 0.1 m m EDTA, and 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, and the homogenate was centrifuged at 13,000 g n for 10 min. The supernatant was collected for the measurement of SOD and POD

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Shanshan Sun, Mengying An, Liebao Han, and Shuxia Yin

antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, peroxidase (POD), CAT, APX, and nonenzymatic antioxidants like AsA and reduced glutathione (GSH) ( Fariduddin et al., 2014 ; Wu et al., 2014 ). Activities and contents of these antioxidants were changed to detoxify