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Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun, and Denise S. Rodriguez

Soil salinization is a global concern, especially in arid and semiarid regions with large and growing populations. It is becoming even more intense because high-quality irrigation water is limited and alternative water sources such as municipal

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Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Jungmin Lee

Saline groundwater, recycled irrigation water from agricultural runoff, and wastewater captured from municipal and industrial effluents are being used more frequently to irrigate crops worldwide ( Garrido et al., 2014 ). These water sources are

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Haijie Dou, Christina Perez, and Lisa Alexander

the southwestern and western United States frequently encounter salinity stresses that adversely affect plant growth and development as well as its aesthetically pleasing appearance. Salinity stress triggers a wide range of plant responses such as

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Yuxiang Wang, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Chaoyi Deng, Yi Wang, and Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

salinity will gradually increase, especially in salt-prone areas using reclaimed water. It is essential to select salt-tolerant plants for landscape use in those salt-prone areas. Reclaimed water has a relatively high salinity level and undesirable specific

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Zhao Xiang, Zhu Huisen, Gao Yang, and Li Deying

Turfgrass experiences salinity stress either because of salt-affected soils or because of salts from irrigation, especially from recycled water ( Leskys et al., 1999 ). During the winter in cold regions, salts are often applied on roads to melt ice

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Huisen Zhu and Deying Li

water usage increased from 14.7% in 2005 to ≈25% in 2013 of all water used on golf courses ( Gelernter et al., 2015 ). Most recycled water has elevated salt levels ( Harivandi, 2007 ; Marcum, 2006 ). Golf courses that are developed on saline soils or

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Qiang Liu, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, James Altland, Lifei Chen, and Lijuan Jiang

., 2008 ; Tanji et al., 2008 ; Yeager et al., 2010 ). However, reclaimed water contains higher salt concentrations than potable water, and the elevated salinity can cause salt damage on salt-sensitive plants ( Niu and Cabrera, 2010 ). Salinity decreases

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Youping Sun and Alyssa Lanae Palmer

arid to semiarid urban areas across the southwestern United States ( Tanji et al., 2008 ). However, these water sources are still underused. This may be attributed to the high level of salinity and undesirable specific ions in reclaimed water that can

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Steven J. Bergsten, Andrew K. Koeser, and J. Ryan Stewart

. However, salinity could severely impede cultivation of A. parryi , A. utahensis , and A. weberi in many semiarid regions. In the United States, 8.5 million ha of land are considered saline or sodic ( Massoud, 1976 ). Over half of this land area is

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Francesco Montesano and Marc W. van Iersel

Salinity represents an increasing threat to agriculture around the world, while at the same time agricultural food production will need to increase to meet the needs of the increasing world population. This increases the likelihood that