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María José Gómez-Bellot, Pedro Antonio Nortes, María Fernanda Ortuño, María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco, Karoline Santos Gonçalves, and Sebastián Bañón

is its salinity. Among the many effects, salinity generates the decrease in the ψ S of the medium, which, as a consequence, increases the difficulty of the plant to take water from the medium ( Neumann, 1997 ). In saline conditions, reductions in the

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Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Jungmin Lee

Saline groundwater, recycled irrigation water from agricultural runoff, and wastewater captured from municipal and industrial effluents are being used more frequently to irrigate crops worldwide ( Garrido et al., 2014 ). These water sources are

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Yuxiang Wang, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Chaoyi Deng, Yi Wang, and Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

salinity will gradually increase, especially in salt-prone areas using reclaimed water. It is essential to select salt-tolerant plants for landscape use in those salt-prone areas. Reclaimed water has a relatively high salinity level and undesirable specific

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Zhao Xiang, Zhu Huisen, Gao Yang, and Li Deying

Turfgrass experiences salinity stress either because of salt-affected soils or because of salts from irrigation, especially from recycled water ( Leskys et al., 1999 ). During the winter in cold regions, salts are often applied on roads to melt ice

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Huisen Zhu and Deying Li

water usage increased from 14.7% in 2005 to ≈25% in 2013 of all water used on golf courses ( Gelernter et al., 2015 ). Most recycled water has elevated salt levels ( Harivandi, 2007 ; Marcum, 2006 ). Golf courses that are developed on saline soils or

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Qiang Liu, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, James Altland, Lifei Chen, and Lijuan Jiang

., 2008 ; Tanji et al., 2008 ; Yeager et al., 2010 ). However, reclaimed water contains higher salt concentrations than potable water, and the elevated salinity can cause salt damage on salt-sensitive plants ( Niu and Cabrera, 2010 ). Salinity decreases

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Steven J. Bergsten, Andrew K. Koeser, and J. Ryan Stewart

. However, salinity could severely impede cultivation of A. parryi , A. utahensis , and A. weberi in many semiarid regions. In the United States, 8.5 million ha of land are considered saline or sodic ( Massoud, 1976 ). Over half of this land area is

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Youping Sun and Alyssa Lanae Palmer

arid to semiarid urban areas across the southwestern United States ( Tanji et al., 2008 ). However, these water sources are still underused. This may be attributed to the high level of salinity and undesirable specific ions in reclaimed water that can

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, James Poss, and Donald A. Layfield

water resources is the use of low-quality water for landscape irrigation. These degraded water resources may be saline and/or alkaline and also may contain specific ions that are toxic for plant growth ( Reboll et al., 2000 ). Salinity, caused by Na

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L.B. McCarty and A.E. Dudeck

Duplicate studies were conducted to determine salt tolerance during germination of eight bentgrass (Agrostis spp.) cultivars commonly used for overseeding warm-season turf species, such as bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) putting surfaces. Bentgrass seeds were germinated on agar salinized with 0, 4000, 8000, 12,000, or 16,000 mg·liter-1, with the highest rate approaching one-half seawater salinity. Total germination decreased linearly or quadratically for specific cultivars as salinity increased. Time necessary to reach 50% germination across all salt concentrations was shortest for `Highland' colonial (Agrostis tenuis Sibth) and `Seaside' creeping (A. palustris Huds.) bentgrass (≈3.7 days); intermediate for `Kingstown' velvet (A. canina L.) and `Streaker' red top (A. alba L.) bentgrass (≈4.5 days); and longest for `Penneagle' creeping, `Penncross' creeping, `Exeter' colonial, and `Pennlinks' creeping bentgrass (≈5.3 days). Salt concentrations necessary to reduce germination to 90%, 75%, and 50% indicated that `Streaker' red top and `Seaside' creeping bentgrass were the most salt-tolerant cultivars. `Kingstown' velvet, `Exeter' colonial, and `Highland' colonial bentgrass were intermediate, while `Pennlinks', `Penncross', and `Penneagle' creeping bentgrass were the most salt-sensitive cultivars.