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Timothy K. Broschat

monocots, palms have different nutritional requirements than dicot trees or shrubs. Most notable is the high potassium requirement of palms, an element that is rarely deficient in dicot trees. The purpose of this article is to review the most common

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Alvaro O. Pacheco, G.J. Hochmuth, D.N. Maynard, A.A. Csizinszky, and S.A. Sargent

Optimum economic yield is produced when nutrients in the proper amounts are supplied to the crop. Crop nutrient requirements (CNR) of essential elements have been determined for the major vegetables produced in Florida. However, for minor crops, such as muskmelon, little research has been conducted to determine the CNR, especially potassium. In many vegetables, yield has responded to increasing K rates when other elements were not limiting. Our objective was to determine the K fertility requirement for optimum yield of muskmelon and to evaluate the Mehlich-1 soil test calibration for soil testing low in K (<20 mg·kg–1). Experiments were conducted in the spring and fall seasons of 1995. Potassium at five rates (0, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg·ha–1) was injected weekly, approximating the growth curve of `Galia' and `Mission'. There were significant yield responses to K fertilization for both cultivars during both seasons. During spring, average marketable yield was 14.5, 26.1, 31.9, 31.5, and 36.3 Mg·ha–1 and for fall, average marketable yield was 15.8, 32.9, 37.8, 37.2, and 36.4 Mg·ha–1 for the previously described K treatments, respectively. The cultivar response for both seasons was described by a linear-plateau model. In spring, yield was maximized with K at 116.8 and 76.3 kg·ha–1 for `Galia' and `Mission', respectively. In fall, K at 73.3 and 68.3 kg·ha–1 produced the peak response for the same cultivars. These results indicate that maximum yield of muskmelon in Florida can be obtained at considerably less K than the current recommendation of 140 kg·ha–1.

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Gene Lester

This article examines the nutritional quality and human health benefits of melons, specifically, muskmelon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) types. Melons are naturally low in fat and sodium, have no cholesterol, and provide many essential nutrients such as potassium, in addition to being a rich source of beta-carotene and vitamin C. Although melons are an excellent source of some nutrients, they are low in others, like vitamin E, folic acid, iron, and calcium. Since the U.S. diet is already high in fat and protein content, melons should be included in everyone's diet, along with five to eight servings per day of a variety of other fruit and vegetables, to ensure adequate nutrition, promote individual health, and reduce one's risk of cancer and certain other chronic diseases.

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Ana Morales-Sillero, R. Jiménez, J.E. Fernández, A. Troncoso, and G. Beltrán

described in Regulation EEC/2568/91 ( European Union Commission, 1991 ). Free acidity, expressed as percentage of oleic acid, was determined with a potassium hydroxide titration. Peroxide value, expressed as meq O 2 kg −1 of oil, was analyzed by iodometry

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Brian K. Hogendorp and Raymond A. Cloyd

Cloyd, 2012 ). Potassium bicarbonate (MilStop ® ; BioWorks, Victor, NY) is a fungicide registered for use in agricultural and greenhouse cropping systems for the control of various foliar plant pathogens ( Abd-El-Kareem, 2007 ; Cushman et al., 2007

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Angela M. Madeiras, Thomas H. Boyle, and Wesley R. Autio

and metabolism ( Wang et al., 2003 ). A solution of 0.2% potassium nitrate has been found to enhance germination of Phlox drummondii ( Heit, 1957 ); however, Springer and Tyrl (1989) observed no significant enhancement of germination in seeds of P

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T. K. Hartz

A 1993 survey of 50 commercial processing tomato fields in California revealed widespread potassium deficiency, as determined by tissue K levels below existing sufficiency standards and the occurrence of vine necrosis consistent with K deficiency. Soils from these fields were analyzed for exchangeable K by ammonium acetate extraction, and for K release rate by a 7 day incubation procedure (1:10 soil:. 01 M CaCl2 at 25°). Soil K release rate was more highly correlated with tissue K at midseason than was exchangeable K. These soils were further examined for K fixation capacity. Three g soil was blended with 3 ml 10 meq K as KNO3, allowed to dry, incubated for 7 days in a 1:10 soil: H2O solution, then extracted in 1 N NH4Cl; added K not recovered was considered fixed. Percent K fixation ranged from 0 to 82%. These data suggest that the inconsistent response of processing tomato to K application in numerous California trials may be related to a) the reliance on extractable K analysis to characterize soil K supply and b) no consideration of soil K fixation capacity in determining K application timing and method.

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S.I. Shibairo, M.K. Upadhyaya, and P.M.A. Toivonen

The effect of potassium (K) nutrition on the shelf life of carrots was studied using a hydroponics system involving rockwool slabs as support. Carrots were grown for 192 days under greenhouse conditions and supplied with 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 15 mm of K. Increase in K concentration in the nutrient medium decreased postharvest weight loss. Carrot weight and tissue K content increased and water potential, osmotic potential, and relative solute leakage decreased with increasing K concentration in the nutrient feed. Differences in postharvest weight loss were mainly associated to root weight and relative solute leakage. Root weight correlated negatively and relative solute leakage correlated positively to water loss. Water and osmotic potential also correlated to water loss, but not as strongly as root weight and relative solute leakage. These results suggest that K nutrition influences postharvest weight loss by influencing carrot size and membrane integrity. Effects on cell water and osmotic potential are also important in this regard but to a lesser extent.

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Graham J. Wright and Irwin E. Smith

Composted pine bark is one of the most important substrates used in the seedling industry today. Previous work suggested the availability of inherent Potassium (K) in the bark. This research confirmed the availability of K and indicated that little or no K is needed for seedling production when pine bark is used as a substrate. Pre-enrichment rates ranged from 0 to 460 g.K.m-3, with a supplemental solution application of 0 to 200 mg.K.l-1. No evidence of K deficiencies or toxicities were detected. Three K sources, KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4 were used in the pre-enrichment of the bark. No differences were noted for top fresh mass, seedling height, root dry mass, root to shoot ratio and percentage moisture. Seedlings grown in treatments without and supplementary K showed tissue contents of 162.5 This research suggests the possibility of reducing the levels of-K applied to seedlings grown in a composted pine bark substrate.

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Regina R. Melton and Robert J. Dufault

Tomato (L.ycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings were nutritionally conditioned with solutions containing factorial combinations of N at 25, 75, and 225 mg·liter -1, P at 5, 15, and 45 mg·liter-1, and K at 25, 75, and 225 mg·liter -1 to determine the effect of nutritional regimes on tomato transplant growth and quality. As N increased from 25 to 225 mg·liter-1, fresh shoot weight, plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf area, shoot and root dry weights, and total chlorophyll increased. Nitrogen accounted for the major source of variation. Phosphorus effects were significant only in 1988; Pat 45 mg·liter-1 increased fresh shoot weight, plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, and leaf area in comparison to 5 and 15 mg·liter -1. Potassium did not significantly influence any of the growth variables measured in the study. For quality transplant production, nutrient solutions should contain at least N at 225 mg·liter-1, P at 45 mg·liter-1, and K at 25 mg·liter-1.