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Jin-Hu Wu, A. Ross Ferguson, Brian G. Murray, Alison M. Duffy, Yilin Jia, Canhong Cheng, and Philip J. Martin

Chromosome doubling has been widely explored as a bridge to help gene introgression between different ploidy levels both between and within species for crop improvement ( Hayward et al., 1993 ; Meru, 2012 ; Wu et al., 2011 ). Both fruit and seed

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Elisabeth M. Meyer, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

features. Development of in vitro regeneration systems provides an ideal foundation for further improvements by ploidy manipulations, mutation treatments, and transgenic applications. Previous in vitro regeneration studies of Hypericum have focused on

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, and Brian M. Schwartz

-cedar ( Chiba, 1951 ) was used to select 237 seedlings for transplantation. After 1 month of growth [180 d after treatment (DAT)], the ploidy level of the seedlings was determined using flow cytometry. Identification of polyploidy. Flow cytometry, as

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Rebecca M. Harbut, J. Alan Sullivan, John T.A. Proctor, and Harry J. Swartz

that were 20% to 70% higher ( Cameron and Hartley, 1990 ). In addition to the octoploid species, several lower-ploidy Fragaria species (2×, 4×, and 6×) have desirable characteristics such as extreme vigor ( Harbut et al., 2009 ), unique flavors

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Bruce L. Dunn and Jon T. Lindstrom

these chemicals for chromosome doubling varies depending on the plant species, concentration levels, and treatment duration. Restored fertility, increased flower and leaf sizes, and shortened internodes often accompany ploidy manipulation ( Pryor and

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Lauren E. Kurtz, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

cytometric analysis was used to determine ploidy level as was done for C. sativa by Bagheri and Mansouri (2015) and Parsons et al. (2019) . For flow cytometric analysis, 50 mg of young leaf tissue was harvested per plant. A modified version of the

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Shanthanu Krishna Kumar, Nathan Wojtyna, Laura Dougherty, Kenong Xu, and Gregory Peck

/or acidic fruit that were greater than 50 g at harvest. Trees that appeared unhealthy or had insufficient fruit for analyses were excluded. Ploidy data were obtained from a 20,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as part of an ongoing collaborative

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

as well as across ploidy levels have been documented, including M . × giganteus (2 n = 3 x = 57), a naturally occurring triploid hybrid between diploid M. sinensis and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus ( Glowacka and Jezowski, 2009 ). As a result

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Sandra B. Wilson, Gary W. Knox, Zhanao Deng, Keona L. Nolan, and James Aldrich

evaluate the plant performance, growth, flowering, fruit production, seed viability, and ploidy level of the wild-type and eight additional new heavenly bamboo cultivars planted in southern Florida (Fort Pierce, USDA plant hardiness zone 9b) and northern

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Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney, Dilip R. Panthee, Ronald J. Gehl, and Alexander Krings

. Further, there has been no characterization of wild collected Arundo from South Asia. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity, cytogenetics (ploidy, chromosome numbers, and relative genome sizes) and biomass yields of Arundo