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Kuan Qin and Daniel I. Leskovar

optimized practices with high-yielding varieties ( Tilman et al., 2011 ). Several abiotic stresses can be alleviated through appropriate management strategies. For example, deficit irrigation is a well-established method used to save water while maintaining

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Laura L. Van Eerd and Kelsey A. O'Reilly

Nitrogen is a critical nutrient for crop production, but it is difficult to optimize nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications because of the dynamic nature of plant-available N over the growing season. Nitrogen availability affects yield and quality of

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Marija Perić, Slavica Dmitrović, Suzana Živković, Biljana Filipović, Marijana Skorić, Ana Simonović, and Slađana Todorović

sources for two Fagus species ( Cuenca and Vieitez, 2000 ). In some cases fructose proved to be more efficient than other carbohydrates ( Welander et al., 1989 ). Thus, the optimization of a protocol for in vitro propagation of an unexplored plant

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Johshin Tsuruyama and Toshio Shibuya

in dry matter production when optimizing the photoperiod for growth of strawberry seedlings. Fig. 4. Seedlings of the strawberry cultivars Elan and Yotsuboshi after growth for 38 d under light-emitting diode illumination (in the growth chambers) under

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Xiaofeng Yang, Lianzhu Chen, Ming Cao, Xuebin Zhang, and Shaopeng Li

vegetable parameters has been established ( Nendel, 2009 ; Soto et al., 2014 ; Suárez-Rey et al., 2016 ), but these models have never been involved in nitrogen and potassium coupling optimize for muskmelon. The objective of this study was to develop a

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Suzanne O’Connell, Cary Rivard, Mary M. Peet, Chris Harlow, and Frank Louws

cultivar Cherokee Purple ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) (Johnny’s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME) was used throughout this experiment. Systems management. Cultural management practices specific to each system were followed in an effort to optimize system

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Qingrong Sun, Meijuan Sun, Hongyan Sun, Richard L. Bell, Linguang Li, Wei Zhang, and Jihan Tao

= indole-3-butyric acid; QL = Quoirin and Lepoivre. Discussion Regeneration efficiency of apple rootstock is dependent on cultivar, basal medium, and hormonal combinations, so the components of the regeneration medium should be optimized for each cultivar

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Mary Lewis, Matthew Chappell, Paul A. Thomas, Rebekah C. Maynard, and Ockert Greyvenstein

data showing significant differences (α = 0.05, P ≤ 0.05) among treatments are reported. Results and Discussion Optimizing pollination methods. The extremely low rates of pollination success using traditional pollination methods

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Mariateresa Cardarelli, Youssef Rouphael, Delia Muntean, and Giuseppe Colla

; Roberts, 2008 ). Optimization of N application rate is also crucial for commercial ornamental production. In fact, there is a critical N concentration below which the plants show a limited growth and above which the plant show a luxury consumption leading

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Daniel I. Leskovar, Chenping Xu, and Shinsuke Agehara

Jani, 2000 ). Artichoke plants develop a dense and large foliage biomass with a canopy reaching up to 2 m wide and 1 m high at maturity for the early cultivar Imperial Star or even higher for new hybrid cultivars ( Ryder et al., 1983 ). Optimizing plant