(time after harvest of berries not reported). The study also included a 28 °C day/13 °C night temperature treatment with a 14-h photoperiod resulting in 21% germination, but detailed information about the process of germination (i.e., how seeds germinate
Omar A. Lopez, Danny L. Barney, Bahman Shafii, and William J. Price
Meiling Yang, Fang Li, Hong Long, Weiwei Yu, Xiuna Yan, Bin Liu, Yunxiu Zhang, Guorong Yan, and Wenqin Song
., 2008 ). The exact pollen germination percentage in different populations of M. sieversii remains unclear. Seed germination is another major aspect for plant reproduction. Relieving seed dormancy successfully is critical for fruit breeding. Evidence
Chad E. Finn, James J. Luby, Carl J. Rosen, and Peter D. Ascher
was supported, in part, by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture under Specific Cooperative Agreement no. 58-32U4-7-047. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must
Yasser Ismail El-Nashar and Yaser Hassan Dewir
. from Jordan using seeds and in vitro culture techniques: Baseline information for a conservation perspective Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11 7684 7692 Ashkan, A. Jalal, M. 2013 Effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling vigor indices of two halophytic
X. Wang, J.T.A. Proctor, S. Krishna Raj, and P.K. Saxena
Ginseng is a very valuable agricultural species grown for its root, which contains pharmacologically active constituents. One limiting factor for expansion of ginseng production is an efficient method for mass propagation. Currently, seeding is the principal method of propagating ginseng, but the embryo of ginseng seeds at harvest is immature. A stratification schedule consisting of a cool-warm-cool temperature treatment over 18-22 months is required for embryo development and seed germination. An alternative for the efficient production of ginseng is mass propagation through the use of in vitro culture techniques. The objective of this work was to develop a highly efficient system for regeneration of ginseng. The efficacy of three auxins, viz. 2,4-D, NAA and dicamba, were compared for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in American ginseng. Somatic embryos formed on ginseng cotyledonary, zygotic embryo, and shoot explants after 8 weeks of induction by the auxins. Significantly more somatic embryos were induced by culture of any of the ginseng explants on media supplemented with 5 μmol·L-1 2,4-D than any other auxin treatment. Histological and SEM studies confirmed that the regenerants were somatic embryos. Somatic embryos germinated and developed into normal plants in 3-6 months. The development of a regeneration system for ginseng using somatic embryogenesis is a necessary first step for mass propagation and the improvement of American ginseng.
Jules Janick, Christiane Cabral Velho, and Anna Whipkey
Journal Paper no. 12,525 of the Purdue Univ. Agricultural Experiment Station. We thank William Carlson, Southern Forestry Res. Dept., Weyerhaeuser Corp., for providing seed. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of
Qi Zhang, Sheng Wang, and Kevin Rue
, alkaligrass ( Puccinellia spp.), a native of the prairies in the western United States and Canada, is highly recommended for home lawns under high saline stress. Harivandi et al. (1982) reported that 48% of Puccinellia spp. seeds germinated after a 15-d
Jameel M. Al-Khayri, Teddy E. Morelock, and Edwin J. Anderson
Cowpea, or southernpea, is an important food legume that provides a source of high-quality protein, especially in the mature seeds. In the United States, industries exist to supply dry and processed seeds. Our aim is to develop a regeneration system for cowpea as a prerequisite for genetic engineering. Our objective was to examine the in vitro responses of shoot tips to growth regulators. Shoot tips isolated from in vitro-germinated seedlings (`Coronet') were cultured on MS medium containing 2,4-D at 0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg·liter–1 and kinetin at 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg·liter–1. Cultures were maintained at 12-hour photoperiods and 24C. Callus, shoots, and roots or combinations thereof developed depending on the treatment. Callus formed on 1 mg 2,4-D/liter, regardless of the kinetin level, but at 0.1 mg 2,4-D/liter and 5 or 10 mg kinetin/liter, shoots also grew. Callus, shoots, and roots developed on 2,4-D lower than 0.1 mg·liter–1. Callus induced on 5 mg kinetin/liter and 0.01 mg 2,4-D/liter regenerated shoots on transfer to 5 mg kinetin/liter and 0.1 mg NAA/liter. This work may assist in the development of a micropropagation system for cowpea.
Kimberly A. Pickens, Jan Wolf, James M. Affolter, and Hazel Y. Wetzstein
Many bromeliad species indigenous to the rain forests of Central and South America are threatened because of over-collection and habitat destruction. Studies were conducted to develop propagation protocols for Tillandsia eizii, a rare ornamental bromeliad of ceremonial significance to the Highland Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico. We anticipate using in vitro propagation for the conservation of this species with the potential of utilizing bromeliads as an alternative and sustainable forest resource. Protocols were developed for the sterilization and germination of axenic seed. Seedling growth in vitro was assessed and outplanting studies were conducted. Media were evaluated to promote adventitious bud production in experiments using the plant growth regulators naphthaleneacetic acid and benzylaminopurine. Pulse time and duration, as well as the stage of seed development, had a marked effect on bud production. The effects of various potting media on plant growth and survival were assessed. A pure pine bark medium elicited over 95 percent survival. Plants exhibited a “tank-like” morphology characteristic of plants in the wild.
Michael Stein, Corina Serban, and Per McCord
Seed dormancy, specifically endodormancy, is a strong inhibitor of rapid germination in stone fruit seeds, including those of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium ). Endodormancy has been suggested to be a crucial process in seeds because it prevents