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Greg Schlick and David Bubenheim

Chenopodium quinoa is being considered as a “new” crop for Contolled Ecological Life Support Systems(CELSS) due to the unique protein composition and high mineral values of the seeds and leaves. Quinoa is known to have very high protein levels (12-185 reported from field trials), with desirable amino acid proportions, and mineral concentrations suitable for a balanced human diet. Contolled environment, hydroponic culture has increased the nutritional value and has the potential of increasing the yield. Protein and mineral values have increased substantially and will be discussed in more depth. The high concentration of protein, unique amino acid profile, high mineral values, versatility in preparation and the potential for increased yields make quinoa a useful crop for CELSS and long-term space missions

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Helen C. Thompson, Robert W. Langhans, Arend-Jan Both, and Louis D. Albright

`Ostinata' Butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was used to study lettuce production at varied shoot (air) and root (pond) temperatures. A floating hydroponic system was used to study the influence of pond temperature on lettuce growth for 35 days. Pond water temperature setpoints of 17, 24, and 31 °C were used at air temperatures of 17/12, 24/19, and 31/26 °C (day/night). Pond temperature affected plant dry mass, and air temperature significantly affected growth over time. Maximum dry mass was produced at the 24/24 °C (air/pond temperature) treatment. Final dry mass at the 31/24 °C treatment did not differ significantly from the 24/24 °C treatment. The 24 °C pond treatment maintained market quality lettuce head production in 31 °C air. Using optimal pond temperature, lettuce production was deemed acceptable at a variety of air temperatures outside the normal range, and particularly at high air temperatures.

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Mack Wilson, Dianna Rogers, Victor Khan, and Clauzell Stevens

Styrofoam ice trays were used to grow `Discovery Yellow' marigolds transplanted 4 weeks after seeds were germinated and then grown in two nutrient cultures. The cultures were Hoagland at the rate of 1/2 ml/6 gal water and nutraculture (20-10-20) at 2.4 ozs/6 gal water. Half containers were aerated and other half were not aerated. Data collected were root, stem, bloom fresh and dry weight, and stem length and number of blooms and leaves. Results showed that stem length, and number of leaves and blooms were significantly greater when grown in Hoagland solution. Fresh and dry weight of roots, stems, and blooms were significantly greater when grown in Hoagland solution. Nonaerated treatments performed significantly better than aerated treatments for either hydroponic solutions.

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Anita L. Hayden

Hydroponic and aeroponic production of medicinal crops in controlled environments provides opportunities for improving quality, purity, consistency, bioactivity, and biomass production on a commercial scale. Ideally, the goal is to optimize the environment and systems to maximize all five characteristics. Examples of crop production systems using perlite hydroponics, nutrient film technique (NFT), ebb and flow, and aeroponics were studied for various root, rhizome, and herb leaf crops. Biomass data comparing aeroponic vs. soilless culture or field grown production of burdock root (Arctium lappa), stinging nettles herb and rhizome (Urtica dioica), and yerba mansa root and rhizome (Anemopsis californica) are presented, as well as smaller scale projects observing ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and skullcap herb (Scutellaria lateriflora). Phytochemical concentration of marker compounds for burdock and yerba mansa in different growing systems are presented.

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Jeffrey Adelberg, Robert Pollock, Nihal Rajapakse, and Roy Young

Two varieties of Cattleya orchids (C. Loddigessi `Elen' × C. Loddigessi Alba `Extra' and Brassolaeliocattleya. Mem. `Helen Brown' Sweet Afton) were micropropagated in sealed, three-dimensional polypropylene vessels with microporous, semi-permeable membrane films to allow diffusion of water, dissolved nutrients, and gas to plant material inside the vessels. During tissue culture on sugar-containing media, chance contaminants were eliminated on the vessels outer surface using 5% bleach solution. Proper decontamination treatment did not effect carbohydrate content or subsequent growth of tissues contained within the vessels. Plantlets remaining in membrane vessels were shipped (7 days at 14–30°C) from Japan to the United States in the dark in a plastic tray and arrived without changes in fresh or dry weight of whole plantlets. However, shoot dry weight did increase significantly. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose reserves established on sugar-containing media were greater in root than shoot tissue and were largely expended during shipping concurrent with increased shoot dry weight. It is likely carbohydrate catabolism provided energy for these CAM plantlets to continue carbon fixation, resulting in positive net carbon assimilation in the dark shipping environment. Changes in starch concentrations during shipping were not significant. Plantlets grew photoautotrophically in hydroponic culture in the greenhouse, following transport in the same sealed membrane vessels. Carbohydrate concentration of plantlets following hydroponic culture was not significantly different than after the shipping process. Sealed-membrane vessels for micropropagation, decontamination, shipping and greenhouse growth were useful for culture of Cattleya to facilitate scale-up of materials handling and international commerce of tissue-cultured plants.

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Dimitrios Savvas, Gerasimos Meletiou, Spiridoula Margariti, Ioannis Tsirogiannis, and Anastasios Kotsiras

In a completely closed hydroponic system, Na and Cl commonly accumulate in the root zone, at rates depending on the concentration of NaCl in the irrigation water (rate of Na and Cl inlet) and the Na to water and Cl to water ratios at which they are taken up by the plants (rates of Na and Cl outlet). However, while the concentration of NaCl in the irrigation water is commonly a constant, the Na to water and Cl to water uptake ratios are variables depending on the concentrations of Na and Cl in the root zone and, hence, on the rates of their accumulation. To quantify this feed-back relationship, a differential equation was established, relating the rate of Na (or Cl) accumulation to the rate of water uptake. This equation was solved according to the classical Runge-Kutta numerical method using data originating from a cucumber experiment, which was conducted in a fully automated, closed-loop hydroponic installation. Four different NaCl concentrations in the irrigation water, 0.8, 5, 10 and 15 mm, were applied as experimental treatments. The theoretically calculated curves followed a convex pattern, with an initially rapid increase of the Na and Cl concentrations in the root zone and a gradual leveling out as the cumulative water consumption was rising. This was ascribed to the gradual approaching of the Na to water and Cl to water outlet ratios via plant uptake, which were increasing as NaCl was accumulating in the root zone, to the constant NaCl to water inlet ratio (NaCl concentration in irrigation water). The model could predict the measured Na and Cl concentrations in the drainage water more accurately at 10 and 15 mm NaCl than at 0.8 and 5 mm NaCl in the irrigation water. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. Plant growth and water uptake were restricted as salinity was increasing, following a reverse pattern to that of Na and Cl accumulation in the root zone. The leaf K, Mg and P concentrations were markedly restricted by the increasing salinity, while that of Ca was less severely affected.

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A.A. Trotman, P.P. David, D.G. Mortley, and G.W. Carver

In a greenhouse study, continuous use of the same plant nutrient solution for hydroponic culture of sweetpotato was investigated to determine the effect on storage root yield, plant growth and nutrient solution composition. Plants were grown for 120 days under continuous flow from a 30.4-liter reservoir. Plant growth was compared when nutrient solution was changed at 14-day intervals and when nutrient solution was not changed but nutrients replenished through addition of a Modified half-Hoagland's (N:K=1:2.4) plant nutrient solution when volume in reservoir was -10 liters. Storage root yield was significantly decreased (181 vs 310.3 g/plant) and foliar biomass was significantly increased (372.4 vs 2% g/plant) when nutrient solution was not changed Nitrate and phosphate concentrations decreased in the plant nutrient over the duration of the experiment while sulfate and chloride concentrations increased. Salinity and electrical conductivity were monitored at 2-day intervals and increased with duration of the crop. Increased foliage production may have been the result of nitrogen replenishment going largely for foliage rather than storage root production. It may be that continuous use of the same plant nutrient solution as practiced in this study, resulted in lowered phosphate and nitrate concentrations that limited uptake of these ions by sweetpotato plants, thus reducing yield

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Barbara Kocourkova, Craig S. Charron, Charles Graves, Norman K. Lownds, and Carl E. Sams

High glucosinolate content in brassica meal is a limiting factor in consumption of rapeseed. In recent years canola cultivars of rapeseed with decreased glucosinolate content have been developed. However, environmental and nutritional factors are also believed to influence glucosinolate content. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among water stress, B nutrition, and glucosinolate content in canola. Two canola cultivars (`Cyclone' and `American A112') were grown in a continuously recirculating hydroponic system with modified Hoagland solution (0.6 ppm B). Water stress was induced gradually (2% per day using polyethylene glycol 8000) starting when plants were 4 weeks old. Osmotic potential was maintained at –0.1 MPa (high stress level), –0.085 MPa (medium stress), or 0.05 MPa (control). Treatments were arranged in a randomized incomplete-block design, with three blocks, four replications, two cultivars, and three treatments. Upper leaves (no. 15 and higher) were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry for B content. Total and indole glucosinolate content of seeds were measured colorimetrically and by HPLC. The leaf B content of stressed plants decreased by 55% in `Cyclone' and 29% in `American A112'. Total glucosinolate content increased 28% and 12%, respectively, in stressed plants of `Cyclone' and `American A112'. Indole glucosinolate content was 44% and 13% higher in the same plants. The interaction between cultivar and water stress was not significant for glucosinolate content but was significant for B content of the leaves.

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Richard G. Snyder

A successful greenhouse tomato crop depends on the optimization of several factors; among these factors are water, nutrition, and all facets of environmental control. Good pollination, however, is one of the most important requirements for the production of fruit of high yield and quality. Poor pollination causes fruit that are smaller, angular, or puffy, due to reduced seed numbers and poor gel fill in the locules. In Spring 1993, two 7.3 × 29.3 double plastic-covered greenhouses were used to compare the conventionally used electric pollinator to bumblebees for effective pollination; replicated variety trials were performed within each. In one greenhouse (12 replications, RCBD), `Trust' performed better than `Caruso' in yield and quality, although it was smaller in fruit size. In the other greenhouse (four replications, RCBD), `Match' and `Switch' were better than all others (`Belmondo', `Capello', `Laura', and `Rakata') for most yield and quality variables. Means across varieties were similar for the two pollination techniques, with marketable weights identical. For gutter-connected greenhouse ranges of 0.1 ha or larger, bumblebees are an economically viable option for pollinating hydroponically grown tomatoes.

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D.G. Mortley, J.H. Hill, C.K. Bonsi, W.A. Hill, and C.E. Morris

Growth chamber studies were conducted to determine if inverse day/night temperature could control canopy height of sweetpotato without adversely affecting storage root yield. Four 15-cm-long vine cuttings of TU-82-155 sweetpotato were grown in rectangular nutrient film technique hydroponic troughs for 120 days. Two troughs were placed into each of six reach-in growth chambers and subjected to 24/18, 26/20, 28/22, 18/24, 20/26, and 22/28 °C, respectively. Growth chamber conditions included a 12/12-h photoperiod, 70% RH, and photosynthetic photon flux of 1000 μmol·m-2·s-1 at canopy level. Total and edible storage root yields were reduced by 50% among plants grown under cool days/warm nights regimes. Harvest index was similar among treatments except for the low value obtained at 22/28 °C. Canopy height was positively correlated with the change in temperature, and for every 2 °C decrease there was a 3.1 centimeter decrease in canopy height. Inverse day/night temperature effectively controlled canopy height but at the expense of storage root production.