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Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

nm) as compared with white light from incandescent, halogen, and fluorescent lamps and the individual narrow-band wavelengths of yellow (595 nm), red (630 nm), or green (520 nm) ( Kuo et al., 2012 ). Both of these studies support the finding in the

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Soo-Hyung Kim and Bert Cregg

photography of green fluorescent protein-induced fluorescence, real-time imaging of reactive oxygen species) for evaluation of whole-plant as well as fruit physiological stresses. The ability to capture spatial and temporal variability makes these technologies

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

spathe wilting, to water stress. Another symptom, spathe blueing, is attributed to an increase in pH from 5.2 to 5.6 caused by an increase in ammonium ions resulting from the breakdown of proteins ( Paull et al., 1985 ). There is no agreed set of

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Michael W. Bairu, Manoj G. Kulkarni, Renée A. Street, Rofhiwa B. Mulaudzi, and Johannes Van Staden

different temperatures, the seeds were incubated at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 30/15 °C. The experiments were conducted under a 16-h photoperiod with cool-white fluorescent lamps, which provided a photosynthetic photon flux density ( PPFD ) of 75.6 ± 3

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Zhengnan Yan, Long Wang, Jiaxi Dai, Yufeng Liu, Duo Lin, and Yanjie Yang

., 2019 ). Currently available white LEDs showed higher energy efficiency, and He et al. (2020 ) suggested substituting fluorescent lamps in PFALs with white LEDs. Therefore, a suitable combination of PPFD and photoperiod provided by white LEDs is

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Ambika B. Gaikwad, Tusar Kanti Behera, Anand K. Singh, Devanshi Chandel, Jawahir L. Karihaloo, and Jack E. Staub

and var. minima ) comprising six genetically distinct, commercially released, agroecologically diverse varieties (‘Pusa Do Mausami-green’, ‘CO 1’, ‘Priya’, ‘Preethi’, ‘MDU 1’, and ‘Arka Harit’; Table 1 ) and cultivated landraces, previously examined

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Juan O. Quijia Pillajo, Laura J. Chapin, and Michelle L. Jones

proteins and organelles that have been transported to the vacuole. Seventy-five percent to 80% of total leaf nitrogen is recycled via autophagy of whole chloroplasts (chlorophagy) or of rubisco-containing bodies ( Wada et al., 2009 ). In support of its

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Qinglu Ying, Chase Jones-Baumgardt, Youbin Zheng, and Gale Bozzo

, such as biomass accumulation ( Darko et al., 2014 ). LED technology has many advantages over traditional light sources (e.g., high-pressure sodium light and fluorescent light), including energy efficiency, low heat output, long operating lifetime, and

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Hisayo Yamane, Yukinobu Kashiwa, Tomomi Ooka, Ryutaro Tao, and Keizo Yonemori

parts, bearing two to three buds each, were placed in water in a growth chamber and were maintained at 25 °C under cool white fluorescent light and a 16-h photoperiod. After 3 weeks in the chamber, buds showing green leaves were considered to have burst

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Renée S. Arias, Natascha Techen, Timothy A. Rinehart, Richard T. Olsen, Joseph H. Kirkbride Jr, and Brian E. Scheffler

( Green, 2004 ). Only the three temperate species are economically important as ornamentals and natural products. Temperate Chionanthus spp. ( C. retusus from eastern Asia and C. pygmaeus and C. virginicus from eastern North America) are cultivated