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Open access

Roy A. Larson and R. Kent Kimmins

Abstract

α-Cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol) applied to inherently tall-growing chrysanthemum cultivars controlled ht at concn of 62 mg/liter (0.06 mg/15 cm pot) when applied as a foliar spray, and 0.12 mg/15 cm pot when applied as a soil drench. An thesis was delayed in plants treated with high concn of the growth retardant but flower size and no., and node no. were unaffected.

Open access

Daniel J. Cantliffe and Sharad C. Phatak

Abstract

In field experiments with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) on both sandy and clay loam soils (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) at 125 or 250 ppm applied twice to the foliage was more effective in promoting pistillate flowers and yield on ‘Wisconsin SMR 58’, a monoecious cultivar, than granular ethephon applied at various rates as a sidedress at planting, placed directly on the seed at planting, or applied as a sidedress in the first true-leaf stage. Foliar sprays on ‘Pioneer’ were effective in reducing the number of staminate and increasing the number of pistillate flowers. However, ethephon applied by any method did not increase yields in ‘Pioneer’, a predominantly pistillate cultivar.

Open access

A. Bar-Akiva

Abstract

Foliar spray applications of ammonium phosphate were more effective than potassium nitrate sprays in reducing creasing of ‘Valencia’ oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). Ammonium phosphate decreased fruit size and increased its soluble solid content. Potassium nitrate applied before or after ammonium phosphate prevented smaller fruit and increased the effectiveness of ammonium phosphate in preventing creasing.

Open access

J. Schonherr and M. J. Bukovac

Abstract

Translocation of SADH was studied in young apple (Malus domestica Bork.) and peach (Prunus persica L.) trees using inhibition of shoot extension and distribution of 14C from foliar-applied 14C-SADH as indices of translocation. Two shoots were allowed to develop on each tree approximately 15 cm apart and orientated; in opposite directions. SADH (5000 ppm) inhibited elongation of the treated shoot but had not significant effect on elongation of the nontreated shoot. This response was independent of whether the upper or lower shoot was treated. In peaches, growth (dry wt) of the non treated shoot was greater than comparable shoots on control trees. These data suggest that SADH was not translocated into neighboring shoots. The absence of translocation of 14C from labeled SADH from treated to nontreated shoots was confirmed by radioautography.

Open access

Arthur E. Nightingale

Abstract

Foliar applications of 6(Benzylamino), 9(2-tetrahydropyranyl), 9-H purine (PBA) to Easter lily induced large numbers of bulbils in leaf axils on above ground stems.

Open access

G. H. Neilsen and E. J. Hogue

Abstract

Growth of Zn-deficient apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. McIntosh) grown in the greenhouse responded equally well to chelated or mineral Zn foliar sprays of the same Zn concentration. Absolute leaf Zn uptake, but not leaf Zn concentration, was a good measure of growth response. Foliar sprays with a concentration greater than 2.5 × 103 µg Zn/ml were required to correct Zn deficiency and adequately support growth of severely deficient seedlings for a month.

Free access

Ed Stover, Michael Fargione, Richard Risio, Warren Stiles, and Kevin Iungerman

This study was initiated to determine if prebloom sprays of B, Zn, and urea would enhance cropping of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) after cold injury, hypothesizing that they may accelerate recovery of damaged vascular tissue. The following foliar nutrient treatments were applied prebloom to `McIntosh' and `Empire' trees at two sites in 1994 and 1995: 1) control; 2) B (22.8 mm) at half-inch-green; 3) Zn-EDTA (0.75 mm) at half-inch-green; 4) B and Zn-EDTA at half-inch-green; 5) B, Zn-EDTA, and urea (59.4 mm) at half-inch-green; 6) B and Zn-EDTA at half-inch-green, followed by B, Zn-EDTA, and urea at pink. In 1994, following a very severe winter that caused visible damage to vascular tissue, `Empire' at both sites cropped more heavily following all treatments that included both B and Zn; such treatments increased cropload by an average of 22% and 35% at the two test sites. Despite a mild winter preceding the 1995 season, prebloom nutrient treatments again increased cropping of `Empire'. In 1996, treatments included a control and a single foliar treatment (B + Zn-EDTA at half-inch-green followed by B, Zn-EDTA, and urea at pink) on `McIntosh' and `Empire' at seven orchard sites. Treatment enhanced cropping in `McIntosh' at three of the seven sites, but there was no effect on `Empire'. Factors influencing differences in response were not apparent from this study, although a complex of factors may be involved. Data for all years indicated that prebloom nutrients did not enhance spur leaf development or fruit set; such treatments probably enhance cropping by increasing retention of flower buds that would otherwise abscise before anthesis. Where cropping was increased, mean fruit weight was not reduced at P ≤ 0.05 but fruit weight was significantly less at P ≤ 0.10 in 1995. Chemical names used: boron (Solubor, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate); zinc (Zn-EDTA, zinc chelate).

Free access

F.F. Ahmed, A.M. Akl, A.A. Gobara, and A.E.M. Monsour

The beneficial effect on yield and quality of `Anna' apple fruits for the application of ascobine at 0.1% and citrine at 0.6% was studied during 1995 and 1996. Results showed that two citrine sprays at start of growth and 30 days later of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% were of material promotion effect on yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, and total sugars, while reducing the total acidity. Both fertilizers were equally very effective in all the studied characters. The most striking and promising treatment was the application of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% twice during the growing season; i.e., growth start at 30 days later.

Free access

Chiwon W. Lee, Keun Ho Cho, Larry J. Cihacek, and Robert W. Stack

The influence of calcium nitrate fertilization on the storage characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota) roots was investigated. Plants of `Navajo' carrots grown under irrigation were sprayed with a 2% solution of Ca(NO3)2 4H2O at a rate of 50 kg/ha Ca 10 days before harvest. Quality of carrot roots stored at 5 °C was evaluated monthly for sweetness, tissue electrolyte leakage, disease development and visual characteristics. For disease development, the crown portion of the carrot roots was inoculated with an ascospore solution (2 × 109 spores/mL) of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) before storage. When determined after 1 month of storage, percent tissue electrolyte leakage in the Ca-treated carrots decreased 52% as compared to that obtained from the control. Sugar contents of the cortex and xylem tissues were not affected by calcium nitrate fertilization. Changes in other quality parameters of carrot roots for an extended storage period, including white mold development, will be presented. Initial findings of this research suggest that foliar calcium feeding at the final stage of plant growth may enhance the quality of carrot roots during storage.

Open access

Stephen G. Diver, Michael W. Smith, and Ronald W. McNew

Abstract

Greenhouse experiments using seedling pecan trees [Carya illinoensis (Wan-genh.) C. Koch] compared rates and repeated applications of K2SO4, K2SO4 vs. KNO3, and Ν adjuvants in combination with K2SO4 or KNO3. Leaf and stem Κ concentrations increased linearly with rates to 87.1 g/liter K2SO4 applied 5 times at 14-day intervals. Phytotoxicity was negligible to 10.9 g/liter K2SO4. Plants receiving individual applications of KNO3 or K2SO4 at 9.8 g K/liter 2 times at 14-day intervals had 92% and 53% more Κ than the control, respectively. KNO3 at 25.3 g/liter or K2SO4 at 21.8 g/liter, in combinations with urea and/or NH4NO3 at 6.25, 12.50, and 25.00 g/liter, increased leaf Κ concentration significantly and the increase was consistently greater using KNO3 than K2SO4. Both urea and NH4NO3 applied with either KNO3 or K2SO4 increased leaf Κ concentrations. Negligible phytotoxicity occurred when urea or NH4NO3 was applied at 6.25 g/liter with K2SO4 or KNO3.