Sewage sludge is being converted to compost by many municipalities. Its use in the production, establishment, and/or maintenance of horticultural crops is dependent on soluble salt concentration, particle size, stability, dewatering procedures, storage conditions, and crop needs. Soluble salt concentration has the greatest effect on the amount of compost that can be used as a soil or potting media amendment. Because composted sewage sludge is rich in plant nutrients, it can supply many of the nutrient needs of plants, depending on the amount used and if the plants are growing in the ground or in containers. However, improper storage of composted sewage sludge can render the product useless due to the accumulation of acetic acid and alcohol that occur under anaerobic conditions.
Francis R. Gouin
Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Efthimia Nydrioti
) have been customarily used on green roofs. Organic substances such as peat and composts have also been used but at smaller participation percentages to prevent substrate subsidizing as a result of decomposition ( Williams et al., 2010 ). As substrate
S. Christopher Marble, Jeff L. Sibley, Charles H. Gilliam, and H. Allen Torbert
caused elevated levels of total N in soil water in Expt. 2. However, composting PL before application could reduce N leaching. Use of CPL as fertilizer in urban landscapes could provide an environmentally sound means of disposal for poultry producers as
George E. Fitzpatrick, Eva C. Worden, and Wagner A. Vendrame
Although composting has been practiced for thousands of years, it was not until the 20th century that controlled scientific studies were published illustrating the benefits of compost use in crop production. These studies helped to spur increased interest in composting and compost use, and gave way to the development of commercial composting facilities that supply finished compost products to horticultural producers. Increasing composting activity and compost use encouraged the formation in the late 20th century of trade organizations, such as the U.S. Composting Council and similar organizations in other countries, that support research and applications work to determine ways to improve quality control of commercial compost products.
James E. Altland and Charles Krause
also possible that the addition of organic substrates with high cation exchange capacity, in the form of compost, might reduce and buffer substrate pH over time. Chemical amendments can also be used to lower pH of soils and substrates. Elemental S has
Coleman L. Etheredge and Tina M. Waliczek
). According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), composting is one of several environmentally friendly ways to offset waste that would otherwise enter a landfill and is often easier to implement at a local level when decision-makers and the
Zhengli Zhai, David L. Ehret, Tom Forge, Tom Helmer, Wei Lin, Martine Dorais, and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos
and compost products in the nursery industry, some of which could be applied to organic production settings. Amending soil or potting media with some organic wastes can improve soil physical properties with increased porosity and waterholding capacity
Kristen L. McDowell*, Kevin Ong, and Derald A. Harp
A study was conducted on the Texas A&M Univ.-Commerce campus to evaluate the effect of compost type on the spread of bermudagrass into rose garden beds. Roses were planted in an randomized complete-block design in beds amended with composts derived from yard waste, manure, poultry litter, or dairy manure, or an unamended control. The study site was free of vegetation prior to planting. No pre- or post-emergent herbicides were applied after planting. Each bed was assessed visually monthly and scored on a scale of 0 to 10, with each point equivalent to 10% coverage. A bed received a score of 10 upon full coverage. Beds amended with poultry litter and yard waste had significantly higher bermudagrass invasion and reached 100% coverage more quickly than other treatments. Some of the poultry litter beds reached 100% coverage within 40 days of planting. The control planting had significantly lower coverage than all compost treatments throughout the study.
Helen T. Kraus, Robert L. Mikkelsen, and Stuart L. Warren
Traditional N mineralization studies have been conducted by soil scientists using soils and temperatures found in field production. As temperature, in part, governs the rate of mineralization, and container substrates reach much higher temperatures than do soils, the effect of these elevated temperatures on mineralization must be considered to begin to understand N mineralization in container substrates during production. The N mineralization patterns of three composts [turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) litter, yard waste, and municipal waste] were determined under three temperature regimes (45, 25, and 45/25 °C). More organic N was mineralized from composted turkey litter (CTL) than from municipal or yard composts, regardless of temperature. The percentage of organic N mineralized from CTL was greater at 45/25 and 45 °C than at 25 °C.
Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Ioannis Amountzias, Iro Kokkinou, and Nikolaos Ntoulas
a substrate must consist primarily of inorganic materials, whereas large quantities of composted or other organic substances should be avoided as a result of the substrate subsidence that results from their decomposition. Rowe et al. (2006