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Pauliina Palonen and Leena Lindén

`Maurin Makea', `Muskoka', ` Ottawa', and `Preussen' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) canes were collected from the field and subjected to different hot water treatments (20, 35, 40, 45, and 50 °C) to determine if endodormancy could be removed by a near lethal stress. Estimation of days for 50% budbreak (DD50) was found useful for describing the state of bud dormancy in the samples. Bud dormancy was broken in `Ottawa' by immersing the canes in 45 °C water for 2 hours, in `Maurin Makea' by treating the canes in 40 °C water, and in `Preussen' by both 40 and 45 °C treatments. The influence of this treatment on dormancy and cold hardiness at different times of the winter was further examined using `Ottawa' raspberry. The treatment removed bud dormancy most effectively in October, when the samples were in deepest dormancy. A slight effect was observed in November, but no effect in January. During ecodormancy in February the treatment delayed budbreak. Hot water treatment reduced cold hardiness of `Ottawa' canes by 8 to 15 °C, and that of buds by 9 to 13 °C during both endo- and ecodormancy. Based on the capacity of buds and canes to reacclimate, recovery from the stress treatment was possible at temperatures ≥4 °C. Loss of cold hardiness was caused by high treatment temperature itself and was not related to breaking of dormancy in samples. This finding suggests that dormancy and cold hardiness are physiologically unconnected in raspberry.

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Adam Dale, Patrick P. Moore, Ronald J. McNicol, Thomas M. Sjulin, and Leonid A. Burmistrov

Pedigrees of 137 red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) varieties released throughout the world since 1960 were used to calculate: 1) the genetic contribution of founding clones to these varieties; 2) genetic relatedness among them; and 3) their inbreeding coefficients. Fifty founding clones contributed to the pedigrees of these varieties with a mean genetic contribution ranging from <0.1% to 21%. Varieties were clustered according to the genetic contribution into groups strongly related to geographical origin. Varieties developed in the former USSR and derived from `Novost Kuzmina' formed a distinct cluster. The remaining varieties were clustered in groups based mainly on whether they were of North American or European origin. Varieties were clustered also on the basis of Wright's coefficient of relationship-a measure of genetic relatedness. Cluster groups were related to their geographical origin and the varieties within the groups could be traced to similar intermediate parents. Inbreeding coefficients ranged from 0.0 to 0.625 and were related, in part, to the numbers of generations of controlled hybridization from common ancestors. The British group, with the largest number of generations of breeding, had a low mean inbreeding coefficient, indicating that inbreeding can be minimized with attention to the mating system. Strategies are suggested for maintaining and increasing the genetic diversity in the world's red raspberry breeding populations.

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Pauliina Palonen

Canes of three field-grown cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. `Maurin Makea', `Ottawa', and `Muskoka') were sampled from October to April. Carbohydrate contents of canes and flower buds were analyzed, and cold hardiness (LT50) was determined by controlled freezing. Starch, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and minor amounts of raffinose and stachyose were present in both cane and bud tissues. Glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars in buds. In canes, the proportion of sucrose of all sugars was greater than in buds. Seasonal changes in carbohydrates were related to changes in cold hardiness and mean air temperature during a 5-day period preceding sampling. Starch decreased during fall and was barely detectable in midwinter. Soluble carbohydrates accumulated to 73 to 89 mg·g-1 dry weight in canes and 113 to 131 mg·g-1 dry weight in buds in midwinter. The most striking increase occurred in the concentration of sucrose, but glucose, fructose, raffinose, and stachyose also accumulated. There was a positive correlation between LT50 and the amount of starch, but a negative correlation between LT50 and the amounts of total soluble carbohydrates, sucrose, glucose, and fructose. High levels of sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates, and a high ratio of sucrose to glucose plus fructose were characteristic of a hardy cultivar. Results are evidence of the importance of carbohydrate reserves, especially sucrose, on winter survival of red raspberry.

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Pedro B. Oliveira, Cristina M. Oliveira, and António A. Monteiro

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of date of summer pruning and cane densities on growth and fruiting characteristics of the raspberry (Rubus idaeus) plant. Three summer-pruning dates (early, middle, and late July) and four cane densities (8, 16, 24, and 32 canes/m row) were imposed to the greenhouse-grown primocane-fruiting raspberry `Autumn Bliss' in 2 consecutive years (1994 and 1995). A higher light microclimate and CO2 assimilation rate were measured within the canopy at the lowest density. Some compensation in CO2 assimilation rates were observed in the upper leaves of the high-density treatments, probably in response to low light. Delayed pruning decreased yield per cane and per row. The highest yields per cane were always observed at the lowest cane density. Densities of 16 and 24 canes/m produced the highest fruit yield. Light conditions appeared to be the most important environmental factor affecting plant productivity. Fruit were a weaker sink than roots; therefore, the role of carbohydrate reserves should be investigated.

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David C. Percival, John T.A. Proctor, and M.J. Tsujita

The influence of irradiance, CO2, and temperature on whole-plant net C exchange rate (NCER) of micropropagated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. cv. `Heritage') was examined in 1994. Irradiances >1000 μmolm–2–s–1 PAR were required for light saturation, and net photosynthesis (Pn) greatly increased under CO2 enrichment (up to 2000 μlliter–1) and was optimum at 17C. Temperature effects were separated in another experiment using varying air and soil temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35C) under saturated light and ambient CO2 levels (350 μlliter–1). Both air and soil temperature influenced net Pn, with maximum rates occurring at an air/soil temperature of 17/25C and each contributing 71.2% and 26.7%, respectively, to the total variation explained by a polynomial model (R 2 = 0.96). Dark respiration and root respiration rates also increased significantly with elevated air and soil temperatures. Therefore, results from this study indicate that maximum net Pn occurred at an air/soil temperature of 17/25C and that irradiance, CO2 levels, and shoot and root temperatures are all important factors in examining NCER in raspberries.

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David C. Percival, J.T.A. Proctor, and J.A. Sullivan

Field experiments including supplementary trickle irrigation (IR), IRT-76 plastic film (PF), and straw mulch (STR) treatments were conducted during 1993 and 1994 to determine the influence of root-zone temperature and soil moisture status on carbon assimilation and dry mass distribution, and soil and plant nutrient content, during the establishment of Rubus idaeus L. `Heritage' primocane-fruiting raspberries. The IR, PF, and STR treatments were reapplied after the 1993 establishment year to examine their effects on an established, hedgerow planting. Physical environment, vegetative and reproductive data were collected. PF increased root and shoot mass, total flower number, and total berries harvested. Maximum leaf net photosynthetic (Pn) rates were observed under cool air temperatures and root-zone temperature of 25 °C. Field Pn measurements indicated that there was no seasonal decline in Pn. Mulch treatments however, were not beneficial to the established (i.e., 2-year-old) hedgerow planting. The root system of the 2-year-old planting was largely confined to an area within the foliage wall and also at a greater depth from the mulch treatments. Therefore, beneficial effects of mulch management on the growth and development of raspberries may be limited to the establishment year.

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Stenhen F. Klauer, J. Scott Cameron, and Paul W. Foote

Results from previous cultural and physiological studies of red raspberry suggest that primocanes compete with floricanes for light, nutrients and/or photoassimilates. This study was undertaken to determine whether this competition might be reflected in the actual translocation of photoassimilates between the two types of canes. In 1993, pairs of greenhouse grown, potted red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants contaming one or two floricanes and numerous primocanes were labeled with 14CO2 on four dates corresponding with early anthesis, green fruit, red fruit and post fruit maturity stages of the growing season. For each experiment, either a floricane or a primocane was exposed to 92.5μCi 14CO2 within a sealed bag. After 24 hours, the bag was removed and the presence of label was monitored for up to 11 days. Activity was determined using liquid scintillation. At all developmental stages 14C moved from the labeled floricane to primocanes that were from 2.5 cm to 1.5 m tall and to the roots. Movement was quickest and relatively greatest at early anthesis, dccreascd during fruiting, and was still occuring at 2 months after fruit maturity. Small amounts of label were detected in roots of labeled primocanes at all stages, but trace amounts were present in fruit and other primocanes only at post fruit maturity.

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Cynthia Cohen, H. Mathews, V. Dewey, and R. Bestwick

Raspberry has very cultivar specific requirements for proliferation. Plant regeneration rates from isolated explants are inconsistent and vary widely among cultivars. As a step towards developing a viable transgenic system in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) we first developed an efficient and consistent protocol for plant regeneration from isolated explants. A modified MS medium with cytokinin BA gave vigorous shoots with an average proliferation rate of 3-5 depending on the cultivar. These vigorous shoot proliferants served as an ideal explant source for plant regeneration experiments. The average rate of shoot regeneration from leaf explants was 72, 32, 68. and 72% for cvs. Canby, Chilliwack, Meeker and Heritage respectively. In addition to leaf, petiole explants were equally good sources for inducing shoot organogenesis. In all the above-mentioned cultivars, 44-57% of the petiole explants gave rise lo healthy and vigorous shoot regenerants in culture. The regenerated shoots were induced lo root on a rooting medium and were successfully transplanted to the greenhouse. This regeneration system was successfully applied in our laboratory for developing gene transfer system in red raspberry (see abstract by Mathews, et al).

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Séverine Morel, Richard E. Harrison, Donald D. Muir, and E. Anthony Hunter

Fruit from three red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars—`Glen Clova', `Glen Lyon', and `Glen Moy'—were harvested from four sites on two harvest dates and evaluated fresh or following storage at -20 °C to determine the relative importance of genotype, harvest date, location and freezing effects on 19 sensory attributes using a trained sensory panel. Freezing and cultivar × freezing interaction effects were relatively large while site, harvest date, and other interactions were of minor importance. The cultivar × freezing interaction was caused by differential responses among cultivars for the sensory attributes purple, juicy, sweet, and raspberry aroma with less discrimination among cultivars postfreezing. `Glen Clova' fresh fruit received the highest values for juicy, fruity, sweet, and raspberry aroma; `Glen Moy' fresh fruit received the highest values for purple; `Glen Lyon' fresh fruit received the lowest values for juicy, postfreezing, `Glen Lyon' received the highest values for purple and sweet and all three cultivars were similar for the other attributes. These data suggest that selection for improved postfreezing sensory characteristics should not rely solely on fresh fruit evaluations although further study of a more genetically diverse group of genotypes would be beneficial. The significant cultivar and minimal harvest date and location effects suggest that these fruit sensory analysis methods should be useful in selecting raspberry genotypes with superior fruit quality.

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Jean-Pierre Privé and J. Alan Sullivan

Growth rates for two types of tissue-cultured plant stock for `Heritage', `Ruby', and `Redwing' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) were examined. Actively growing plantlets from the greenhouse (G) were compared to cold-treated (CT) plantlets from cold storage. The greatest differences between these two occurred during the first 6 weeks after planting. At 4 weeks, CT plants for all cultivars had longer canes and internodes, sometimes twice that of G plants. Although `Heritage' had greater total plant dry weights following chilling, `Ruby' and `Redwing' had less. Chilling had no effect on `Heritage' root growth but did reduce root dry weight for `Redwing' and `Ruby'. Relative growth rate (RGR) and leaf area ratio (L-AR) were more effective variables for analyzing growth as they considered differences in initial biomass and cane number and provided a better representation of the data during the initial 6 weeks of growth. All cultivars showed a greater total plant RGR and LAR for the CT plants at 6 weeks. During the first 4 weeks, the G plants were more efficient producers of root dry matter while the CT plants were more efficient producers of cane dry matter. By 6 weeks, the G plants had partitioned a greater percentage of their assimilates into cane growth while the leaves, canes, and roots of the CT plants contributed equally to total RGR. No difference in total or individual component RGR was observed after 6 weeks.