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Fengge Hao, Lirong Wang, Ke Cao, Xinwei Wang, Weichao Fang, Gengrui Zhu, and Changwen Chen

harvested at 3, 6, 9, and 35 d after inoculation and immediately frozen in liquid N 2 and stored at −80 °C. RNA extraction and gene expression. Plant material pooled from five plants was ground with a mortar and pestle under liquid nitrogen into a fine

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

gene cloning at 180 d after full bloom (DAFB). The primers used are shown in Supplemental Table 1 and were designed based on the apple genome sequencing in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The total RNA was isolated using an

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Yuji Yamada, Masayoshi Nakayama, Hiromitsu Shibata, Sanae Kishimoto, and Takashi Ikeda

the retention times and absorption spectra (400–510 nm) were compared. RNA extraction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Total RNA extraction was performed following the methods of Matsushita et al. (2016) and Okutsu et al. (2018

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Alexis K. Nagel, Guido Schnabel, Cesar Petri, and Ralph Scorza

been engineered for tolerance to viruses, insects, or herbicides ( Schahczenski and Adam, 2006 ). Currently, the main transgenic crops to be cultivated globally are soybean, maize, and cotton ( James, 2003 ). Woody species are now being targeted for

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Tripti Vashisth and Taylor Livingston

diseases. Such treatment of heat is often referred to as thermotherapy and has been reported to be effective against pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. ( Grondeau et al., 1994 ). The principle of thermotherapy is that “parasitic

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Julio Solis, Arthur Villordon, Niranjan Baisakh, Don LaBonte, and Nurit Firon

Methods Plant material. Sweetpotato plant cuttings (≈20 cm long) were obtained from generation 0 (derived from in vitro cultures) virus-tested, greenhouse-grown ‘Beauregard’ for greenhouse studies and virus-tested generation 1 seed roots in plant beds for

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Jiao Chen, De-bao Yuan, Chao-zheng Wang, Yi-xing Li, Fen-fang Li, Ke-qian Hong, and Wang-jin Lu

jasmonic acid-responsive genes ( Serrano and Guzman, 2004 ). Transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) plants that constitutively express rice ( Oryza sativa ) RING gene OsBIRF1 exhibited enhanced disease resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus and

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Moon Kyung Ko, Hyunchul Soh, Kyung-Moon Kim, Young Soon Kim, and Kyunghoan Im

isolated total RNA was hybridized with hpt probe DNA. At the mRNA level, the introduced transgene was transcriptionally expressed in the two primary transgenic lines as well as their T 1 progenies, whereas no signal was detected in the wild type ( Fig. 4

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Steven J. Damon and Michael J. Havey

Onion thrips is an important insect pest of onion causing damage to foliage and reducing bulb and seed yields ( Diaz-Montano et al., 2010 ; Elmore, 1949 ). Thrips also vector serious diseases such as iris yellow spot virus ( Gent et al., 2004

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Guangxin Liu, Xiaoqian Su, Lingling Guan, and Fengrong Hu

the leaves of resistant and susceptible cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) genotypes infected by Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus . Their results showed that PAL, POD, CAT, and SOD have active roles in disease resistance against Cotton leaf curl Burewala