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Nicolas Gruyer, Martine Dorais, Gérald J. Zagury, and Beatrix W. Alsanius

compared: 1) wetland units receiving a simple source of C [AWS (2 g·L −1 of sucrose)]; 2) wetland units receiving a complex source of C [AWC (60% w/w of organic materials, dry weight: 10% of maple wood chips, 20% of sawdust from P.W.I. Industries, St

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

mortality by predatory nematodes occurred through the addition of wood chips into tree rows ( Lacey et al., 2006 ). Codling moth is the most widely reported apple pest in both conventional and organic orchards. Dapena et al. (2005) reported that neem

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Bernadine C. Strik, Amanda J. Davis, David R. Bryla, and Scott T. Orr

radiation and results in warmer soil temperatures than organic mulches, such as sawdust or wood chips ( Cox, 2009 ; Larco, 2010 ; Strik et al., 2017a ). Weed mat has also been shown to increase crop water requirements by up to 50% ( Strik et al., 2017a

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Tom Forge, Gerry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Eugene Hogue, and Dana Faubion

materials such as composted manures are usually applied as soil amendments with the primary intention of improving soil organic matter, nutrient status, and biological activity. Coarser materials such as wood processing wastes (wood chips, bark chips

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Yan Chen, Ronald E. Strahan, and Regina P. Bracy

) under a 2-inch layer of wood chips and composted leaves. Hensley (1990) found that 3 inches of hardwood bark mulch increased height and stem diameter of southern magnolia ( Magnolia grandiflora ). However, effects of mulching are dependent on plant

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Peter J. Zale, Daniel K. Struve, Pablo Jourdan, and David M. Francis

fertilizer (J.R. Peters, Allentown, PA) throughout the growing season to promote vigorous growth and ensure seed set ( Blake and Struve, 2007 ). The planting area was kept free from weed competition with wood chip mulch and post-emergence herbicides. Seeds

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Amaya Atucha and Greg Litus

, manure, wood chips, and other wastes at high temperature and in the absence of oxygen. It is characterized by stable aromatic carbon structures, low oxygen and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, low bulk density, moderate cation exchange capacity, high pH, and

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Michael C. Barnes

harvested at ground level, delimbed on 9 Apr. 2007 in Blackstone, VA, and chipped with bark intact on 8 Aug. 2007 with a Bandit Chipper (Model 200; Bandit Industries, Inc., Remus, MI). Wood chips were then hammer-milled on 8 Aug. 2007 to pass through either

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Amy Fulcher, Forbes Walker, James Altland, Wesley Wright, and Neal Eash

and chemical analyses of two biochars produced from pine wood chips and rice hulls and their effects on container substrates. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, PhD Diss Kaudal, B.B. Chen, D. Madhavan, D.B. Downie, A. Weatherley, A. 2016 An

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Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, S. Christopher Marble, Hugo H. Rogers, Charles H. Gilliam, and H. Allen Torbert

physical properties ( Prior et al., 2004 ), which also improves soil water relations ( Prior et al., 2010b ). Mulch (commonly pine bark, pine straw, or wood chips in the southeastern United States) contains high concentrations of plant organic C and, when