Observations of net assimilation rates (`A') by pecan sun and shade leaves in relation to various levels of solar irradiation, the light adaptation characteristics of these leaf types, the role of clouds in suppressing the penetration of solar irradiation, and the abundance of cloud cover in the southeastern U.S. during the growing season, suggest that nut production throughout the U.S. pecan belt is being limited by insufficient sunlight with the southeastern U.S. (comprising about 2/3 of the commercial U.S. pecan production) being especially impacted. In support of this hypothesis, regression analysis showed cultivar-type nut production for Georgia from 1977-1989 to be significantly (P<.0001, R2 = 0.79) associated with sunlight levels ≥ 3000 Wh m-2d-1 from mid August to early October for the same year. This is taken as evidence that the amount of sunlight reaching the canopy seems to be a major factor that should be considered in relation to orchard site selection and canopy management techniques.
Bruce W. Wood and William R. Joyner
Timothy J. Smalley and Carleton B. Wood
Commonly used planting techniques and soil amendments were compared to determine their effect on root growth, shoot growth, and drought tolerance of 2.5 cm caliper Acer rubrum. Study I: Trees were planted on 6 April 1992 into holes backfilled with 1) native soil, 2) 50% aged pine bark: 50% native soil, 3) 50% Mr. Natural™:50% native soil, or 4) 100% Mr. Natural™. Mr. Natural™ consists of granite sand, expanded shale, and composted poultry litter. After two years, no differences in growth or survival existed. Study II: On 8 April 1992, trees were planted in 1) unamended planting holes, 2) tilled planting beds, or 3) tilled and pine bark-amended planting beds. Five months after planting, the root growth in the tilled and tilled-amended beds did not differ, but both had more root growth than planting holes. Amendment-induced nitrogen deficiency reduced shoot growth of the tilled-amended treatment during the first year. After two years, the planting hole treatment exhibited the least shoot growth, while shoot growth of tilled and tilled-amended treatments did not differ. StudyIII: Selected trees in study II were drought stressed for 8 weeks beginning 4 August 1993. No differences in relative leaf water content among treatments were observed Results suggest that native soil should be used as backfill in planting holes; however, tilling a planting bed increases root and shoot growth compared to planting in a hole. Amending beds with pine bark did not increase growth or drought tolerance.
Terri Woods Starman, Xiangrong Duan, and Shane Abbitt
DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) was used to evaluate the genetic relationships among 11 cultivars of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.). Amplification was with 10 octamer oligonucleotide primers that generated 336 DNA bands. Thirty-one percent of the bands were polymorphic and distinguished among cultivars. Genetic relationships were evaluated by cluster analysis, and the resulting dendrogram closely agreed with published cultivar relationships. Arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP) were further used to characterize two cultivars, `Nutcracker Red' and `Peterstar Red', that were previously found to be genetically and morphologically similar, as well as five cultivars in the “Freedom” series. The DAF products generated with arbitrary octamer primers were reamplified with mini-hairpin decamer primers in these experiments. The ASAP profiles were complex and yielded a total of 231 bands, 38% of which were polymorphic and capable of distinguishing each Freedom cultivar. Five of the eight primer combinations distinguished `Nutcracker Red' from `Peterstar Red'. Thus, closely related cultivars of poinsettia can be separated using new and improved molecular fingerprinting protocols.
Bruce W. Wood and Charles C. Reilly
This study reports on sudden death (or decline) of mature and apparently healthy pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Observations suggest that death and damage is due to winter cold injury (although the season's low was only -5 °C). The severity of this cold injury-like form of sudden death is closely associated with nut crop load (i.e., grams of kernels per square centimeter of trunk cross-sectional area) and premature defoliation. Both dead and declining trees not only produced relatively heavy crops, but also exhibited substantial premature pest-induced defoliation the previous autumn. The near absence of sugars and starch in roots and shoots of dead or declining trees at budbreak and the relatively high levels in healthy trees indicates that diminished assimilate reserves during the dormant season were the key factor causing death or decline. The diminished assimilate reserves prevented the accumulation of assimilate reserves necessary for maintaining live roots throughout the dormancy and prevented proper cold acclimation of shoot tissues. Distinct symptoms of sudden tree death or decline compared to typical cold damage are: a) a distinct top-to-bottom gradation of tree damage, with an increased proportion of dead shoots and shoots supporting abnormally small foliage being near the base of the canopy; b) dessicated and tan appearance of inner bark and phloem of the main trunk rather than brown coloration so typical of classical cold injury; c) death of roots by time of budbreak; and d) absence of resprouting from the trunk or root collar. These observations indicate that pecan trees can suddenly die due to being overly stressed for assimilates and that economic losses previously attributed to injury by severe winter cold sometimes may be due to depleted assimilate reserves during the dormant season as a result of overcropping and premature defoliation.
Bruce W. Wood, William Goff, and Monte Nesbitt
Bruce W. Wood and Charles C. Reilly
Bearing pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees overly stressed by crop load and premature autumn defoliation either died or were severely damaged by -3°C in mid-November. Orchard damage was associated with death of tree roots during the dormant season. Exposure of stressed trees to -5°C in mid-March produced an atypical, but distinct, bottom-to-top-of-canopy gradient in bud death and reduced growth of shoots and foliage that was consistent with the pattern of reduced carbohydrate reserves of associated support shoots. Additionally, the foliage of damaged trees contained higher concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, and B. Trees did not exhibit traditional symptoms of cold damage, thus these findings extend cold injury diagnostic criteria to include both root and tree death during the dormant season and also a distinct gradient in shoot death during early spring. Damage by cold appears to be preventable by avoiding excessive tree stress due to overcropping and premature defoliation.
Bruce W. Wood and Robert D. Marquard
Self-pollination was estimated in three Georgia pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] orchards. Selfing in two large orchards lacking an interplanted complementary pollinizer (one orchard being comprised of `Curtis' and the other `Moneymaker') was estimated to be at least 3% and 49%, respectively. A `Cheyenne' orchard containing `Stuart' as a complementary pollinizer at 5% density was estimated to have had at least 14% and 42% of ripened nuts derived from selfing in two consecutive years. These estimates suggest self-pollination may reduce yield in pecan orchards in the southeastern United States.
Bruce W. Wood and Charles C. Reilly
The host-parasite interaction between the black pecan aphid (BPA) [Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis)] and pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] was investigated. Three years of field observations of the ability of BPA populations to induce chlorotic blotches, or visual damage, on 32 pecan cultivars revealed considerable variation in cultivar susceptibility to BPA damage. Among the most commonly grown cultivars, `Sioux', `Cape Fear', `Farley', `Cowley', `Grabohls', and `Barton' exhibited the least damage, whereas `Choctaw', `Oconee', and `Sumner' exhibited the greatest, with `Sioux' and `Choctaw' exhibiting the greatest extremes in susceptibility. Subsequent evaluation indicated that the foliage of pecan genotypes can exhibit an antibiotic-like effect, resulting in the suppression of resident BPA populations. However, the relationship between the degree of this antibiotic effect and the degree of damage exhibited by trees, or field tolerance, was negligible (r = -0.10). For example, while `Choctaw' foliage greatly suppressed BPA population growth, this population was able to inflict relatively severe damage to leaves. An evaluation of feeding preference indicated that BPA alate viviparae (winged females) preferentially feed upon host cultivars on which they have been previously feeding. This feeding preference was eliminated by rinsing leaves with distilled water; hence, a water soluble factor(s) appears to be involved in host preference.
Bruce W. Wood and Charles C. Reilly
Water stage fruit split (WS) is an erratic and complex problem often causing major crop losses to susceptible pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. This study identified two episodes of WS for `Wichita' pecan—a highly susceptible cultivar. The previously recognized precipitation-induced fruit splitting is the major episode; however, a previously unrecognized precipitation-independent, minor episode can also occured before the major episode. This minor episode was associated with the low solar irradiance and high relative humidity—conditions commonly associated with August rains. The crop characteristics of affected trees also influenced WS in that WS increased as crop load per tree increased. Fruits were also more likely to exhibit WS if located within the lower tree canopy. Treatment of foliage with an antitranspirant immediately before split-inducing conditions increased WS. Maintenance of moist soils for ≈2 weeks before WS-inducing conditions substantially reduced WS-related crop losses. These findings help to explain the erratic nature of WS and indicate that maintenance of trees in a well-watered state for ≈2 weeks before the initiation of shell hardening may substantially reduce WS-related crop losses in certain years.
Patrick J. Conner and Bruce W. Wood
Genetic variation among pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] cultivars was studied using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Using a combination of primers, a unique fingerprint is presented for each of the pecan genotypes studied. The genetic relatedness between 43 cultivars was estimated using 100 RAPD markers. Genetic distances, based on the similarity coefficient of Nei & Li, varied from 0.91 to 0.46, with an average value of 0.66 among all cultivars. The phenetic dendrogram developed from cluster analysis showed relatively weak grouping association. However, cultivars with known pedigrees usually grouped with at least one of the parents and genetic similarity estimates appear to agree with known genetic relationships.