Spraying with 3% ethyl oleate (EO) reduced the incidence of cracking from 29 to 11% in ‘Vista’ cherries (Prunis avium L.) Applications of EO increased the rate of dehydration in cherries exposed to ambient air following treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that EO modifies the cherry cuticle by redistributing surface wax, thereby enhancing mass transfer of water vapor through the skin.
Antitranspirant sprays of 5 film-forming materials were compared on mature Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia trees for film persistence and reduction of fruit weight loss after harvest. These materials were also sprayed on young ‘Pineapple’ (C. sinensis) or ‘Valencia’ orange trees growing in 7.6 liter containers on which weight loss was subsequently measured for 48-hour periods after watering. Spray solutions of equal or known film-forming ingredients (solids content) of 1 to 4% (weight/weight) were applied and compared. Plantgard film did not significantly increase the leaf epicuticular coating nor did it reduce fruit weight loss or young tree water use. Mobileaf, Vapor Gard, Nu-Film-17, and Wilt Pruf NCF did result in heavier leaf coatings and less fruit weight loss than the controls. Mobileaf and Vapor Gard reduced potted tree water use. Some loss of effectiveness and coating thickness occurred 5 months after application, but only a small nonsignificant change in effectiveness occurred during the first 2 months after application. Mobileaf and Vapor Gard appeared to give the best antitranspirant protection for the initial 2 months and Vapor Gard for 5 months.
productivity, contrary to the assertion of Blum (2005) . Environmental effects on WUE include the response to the abiotic environmental effects of vapor pressure deficits (VPD), photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ), and water deficits in addition to
were provided when the integrated light intensity reached 0.20 mol·m −2 ·h −1 or after 60 min, whichever occurred first. A vapor-pressure deficit of 0.3 kPa was maintained by the injection of steam or fine mist (Humidifan Turbo XE; Jaybird
An inexpensive system for maintaining desired water potentials throughout seed germination was developed. During hydration, a water reservoir at the base of inclined petri dishes allowed continual saturation of filter paper on which seeds were placed. During dehydration, seeds were exposed to equilibrium vapor pressures above saturated salt solutions. Constant temperature, necessary to prevent condensation of water vapor, was achieved via a small (0.2 A) fan that furnished and circulated heat throughout an insulated chamber in which salt solutions were placed. By operating the chamber above ambient laboratory temperature, interior cooling was not required. The system allowed manipulation of the rate, degree, and frequency of dehydration episodes to which germinating seeds were exposed.
This study examined the effects of high humidity (>95%) and airflow on fresh peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] quality. Peaches were stored in high airflow at 98%, 88%, and 67% relative humidity (RH) (6, 5.6, and 4.3C, respectively) and negligible airflow at 100%, 95%, and 81% RH (6, 5.6, and 4.3C, respectively). Fruit weight loss, penetrometer force, impact variables, and bruise occurrence from a single 15-cm drop impact were measured over 20 days of storage. Fruit stored at a low vapor pressure deficit had a lower rate of weight loss, with drop impact values characteristic of firmer fruit than fruit stored at higher vapor pressure deficits. High airflow increased weight loss and decreased fruit firmness, but had only a secondary effect on localized humidity. Penetrometer force and bruise occurrence were less sensitive than drop impact variables in detecting differences in fruit firmness due to treatments.
A computer simulation model was developed to be used in evaluating irrigation scheduling techniques and assisting irrigation scheduling decisions under greenhouse conditions in Colorado. The model simulates variable greenhouse conditions and shows how each of four irrigation scheduling techniques responds to these conditions. Reports from the model detail numbers of irrigation events, sensitivities to parameters, and forecasts water usage. The model was also used to determine appropriate accumulation triggers for Colorado conditions.
Four techniques evaluated here include: time clock control; accumulated radiation; accumulated vapor pressure deficit; combination method (radiation and vapor pressure deficit). The model has shown the combination method to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, while the time clock method proved to be least sensitive (and most wasteful of water).
The model may evaluate additional irrigation scheduling techniques by including additional parameters in the model, and may readily be adapted to different climatic regions.
Freshly harvested unwaxed `Marsh Ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) were obtained from Wabasso, Fla. The fruit were treated with methyl jasmonate by dipping, pressure infiltration (82.7 kPa for 3 minutes), or vapor fumigation. Control fruit were similarly treated with distilled water. All fruit were then stored at 1°C. Samples from all treatments were transferred to 20°C for 3 days after 4 and 10 weeks of storage at 1°C for evaluation of chilling injury. Symptoms of chilling injury were negligible in all treatments after 4 weeks of storage. However, after 10 weeks of storage, moderate to severe pitting occurred in the control fruit but the severity of chilling injury was significantly reduced by methyl jasmonate treatments. The most effective treatments were either pressure infiltration using a 0.1 mm emulsion or fumigation with vapor at saturation.
Various storage treatments were imposed on cut douglas-fir Christmas trees to measure drying relative to the damage threshold ψ of −3.5 MPa. In a greenhouse (day/night 16°/10° ± 5°C, RH 70-95%), cut douglas-fir dried to −3.5 MPa in 4 days. Overhead irrigation under these conditions maintained ψ about − 3.2 MPa for 9 days. Outdoors (day/night 672° ±9°), ψ declined to a range of −2.5 to −3.0 MPa depending on the weather. Overhead irrigation outdoors maintained ψ between −1.0 to −2.5 MPa. The antitranspirants tested did not reduce the rate of water loss significantly in the greenhouse. Outdoors, ψ of Vapor Gard-treated trees was similar to the irrigated trees, but Vapor Gard caused serious cosmetic defects. None of the other antitranspirants tested reduced moisture loss outdoors.
The effects of air temperature and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the gas exchange behavior, i.e., net CO2 exchange rate (NCER) and dark respiration rate, transpiration, leaf diffusive conductance to water vapor, water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem pressure potential of Schefflera arboricola Hayata ‘Compacta’ were examined under conditions of adequate substrate moisture in a controlled environment growth chamber. The optimum temperature for NCER was around 25°C at a photo-synthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 450 μmol s-1m-2 and an ambient CO2-concentration of about 350 cm3.m-3. With increasing VPD, transpiration increased while leaf diffusive conductance as well as leaf temperature decreased. Due to humidity induced stomatal closure, WUE expressed per unit of VPD also decreased. Changes in VPD did not significantly affect NCER and xylem water potential.