A survey of selected land-grant universities was conducted to gather information related to design and operation of their turfgrass research units. The objective of this survey was to help the University of Florida in planning a new research unit that will be constructed in 2004–05. The survey provided information related to turf area, building facilities, equipment, supplies, and maintenance. Type of monetary support, cost sharing, labor requirements, utilities, and capitol improvement outlays were documented. The number of support people and faculty with activities at the unit varied depending upon the location, with a mean of five research support people, two support staff, and seven faculty across all units. With the exception of fertilizers (50% donated vs. 50% purchased), most (>80%) of the chemicals, seed, and sod was donated to the units. About one-third of the monetary support for operating and general labor expenses for the units was from soft money and one-third from direct state support. Results from this survey provided ideas that could be used to design and staff a new turfgrass research unit or support for updating an existing unit. In addition, turfgrass industry representatives have an interest in the data since they provide a significant portion of the monetary support and supply of materials to turf research units.
Holly L. Scoggins, Joyce G. Latimer, and Victoria T. Barden
A survey was conducted in 2000-01 to provide a comprehensive description of Virginia's commercial greenhouse industry. A total of 274 responses were analyzed. Responses were categorized based on the amount of heated greenhouse space: small, medium, large, or other (including part-time). The survey included questions about growing space, number of employees, education and experience of respondent, crops grown, gross receipts, and target markets. Seventy-five percent of the respondents were owners or owners/growers and respondents reported an average of 15 years experience. Most greenhouse operations were classified as small or less than 10,000 ft2 (929.0 m2). A wide variety of crops were reported, with more than 50% growing bedding plants and nearly 50% growing herbaceous perennials in the greenhouse. Market outlets were about equally divided between wholesale and retail.
Angela M. O'Callaghan
An important element of the social horticulture program at the University of Nevada Cooperative Extension has been the creation of school gardens to enhance educational efforts for children in Las Vegas. Since 2002, a variety of methods has been employed to train teachers and administrators in using gardens, and this has resulted in establishment of successful gardening programs. Southern Nevada has experienced a 400% population increase in 25 years. Results of surveys of area stakeholders between 2000 and 2002, Clark County elementary school staff in 2001, and Clark County school principals in 2004, indicate a desire to incorporate gardens in schools, but concerns about establishing and maintaining them persist. Furthermore, apprehension about trying to garden under challenging climatic conditions characteristic of the Mojave Desert is expressed frequently, as is hesitation about using gardens to enhance the school curriculum in at-risk schools. When offered training in use of gardens, however, a majority of principals surveyed responded positively. They also expressed interest in tracking the educational and social impacts of gardens on students and faculty. This article reports on results of community stakeholder meetings and surveys of Clark County schools, as well as the methods that are being used to create a school gardens program in the most rapidly growing metropolis in the United States.
Moriah Bellenger, Deacue Fields, Kenneth Tilt, and Diane Hite
data from a 2004 survey of 2286 Alabama green industry producers to evaluate some impacts of migrant labor in the industry. The specific research objectives are to estimate the effects of migrant labor on wages, hours worked, and gross sales. In
D.A. Devitt, R.L. Morris, D. Kopec, and M. Henry
Golf course superintendents in the southwestern United States (Tucson, Ariz.; Phoenix, Ariz.; Las Vegas, Nev.; Orange County, Calif.) were surveyed to assess attitudes toward using reuse water for irrigation. Eighty-nine golf course personnel returned the survey, with 28% indicating that they irrigate with municipal water, 36% with well water, and 27% with reuse water. The reason for switching to reuse water varied by state, with 40% of respondents switching in Arizona because of mandates, 47% switching in Nevada because of cost incentives, and 47% switching in California because it was considered a more reliable source of water. Less than 20% of the respondents rated the use of reuse water on golf courses and parks to have a negative impact on cost, the environment and health. However, respondents indicated that using reuse water does have a negative impact on the operations of the golf course, with pond maintenance and irrigation maintenance having the highest negative impact (∼80%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that among those who indicated that using reuse water would have a negative impact on golf course management, a higher percentage were individuals who had a greater number of years of experience irrigating with reuse water (P = 0.01) and individuals who have taken classes on how to use reuse water (P = 0.05). Respondents who currently irrigate with reuse water indicated they had changed a wide range of landscape and turfgrass management practices as a result of using reuse water. Based on the results of this survey, it was concluded that golf course personnel in the southwestern U.S. do not oppose the transition to reuse water for irrigation. However, it was also clear they recognize using such water negatively impacts their golf courses' operations.
Jill Shore Auburn
The Internet has experienced tremendous growth recently. The number of users, the amount and diversity of information available, and exposure in the mass media have all grown rapidly. Several authors recently have asserted that the media reports are overblown and that Internet is not as useful as most reports portray. Agricultural professionals need to assess whether or not the cost of using the Internet (in learning time as well as money) will benefit them in terms of increased knowledge and productivity. This paper describes current use of the Internet to answer practical questions from research and education, using a survey and practical examples from sustainable agriculture.
Tanya J. Hall, Jennifer H. Dennis, Roberto G. Lopez, and Maria I. Marshall
( Krug et al., 2008 ). Examples of sustainable practices include recycling irrigation water and plastic, implementing biological controls, and using alternative energy sources ( Lopez et al., 2008 ). According to an informal survey conducted by
Michele R. Warmund and Denny Schrock
Master Gardener training was delivered via interactive television (IT) or face to face (FTF) in Missouri in 1997. IT and FTF participants were surveyed on their acceptance of the Master Gardener training method and their perceptions of program quality and technology to evaluate the newly developed multiple site IT training. Demographic characteristics were also recorded to determine if IT format attracted a different clientele than that of FTF training. Those who participated in IT training generally had more years of education than those in the FTF training and lived in suburban rather than rural areas. IT participants missed fewer training sessions than FTF participants. However, IT participants rated the slide quality, sound, and overall training lower than the FTF group. Some problems associated with IT training identified by the participants are correctable, which should improve future acceptance of this technology.
Thomas L. Prince, Harry K. Tayama, and John R. Grabner Jr.
A survey analysis of retail florists in the Midwestern United States and floral mass marketers, nationally, profiled the level of service provided by their primary floral suppliers on 10 service characteristics. There is substantial variability in service levels provided to retail florists and mass marketers by suppliers. The greatest variability in service levels was for services relative to maintenance of product quality, product availability, communications/order information, product discounts, and product labeling. Retail florists perceived higher levels of service relative to delivery speed and order/delivery reliability than mass marketers. Mass marketers perceived higher levels of service from suppliers relative to communications/order information and product labeling, compared to retail florists. The service profiles provide floral suppliers management information for the development of service programs targeted for specific customer segments.
Wojciech J. Florkowski and Orville M. Lindstrom
Leyland cypress (×Cupressocyparis Leylandii) is becoming increasingly important as a live-cut Christmas tree yet it differs from trees currently familiar to most customers. Results of a consumer survey provide an opportunity for growers to adjust planting and marketing decisions. Questionnaires were completed while respondents displayed the tree at their residences. Opinions about the tree referred to tree features and compared them with features of other types of Christmas trees and inquired about the care given to the tree and its disposal. In general, respondents were consistent in their favorable assessment of Leyland cypress as a live Christmas tree with respect to several characteristics including tree shape twig density, and maintenance of fresh appearance over time. Recycling was the primary form of tree disposal.