Photosynthesis is the very essence of agriculture. Previous photosynthetic and transpirational studies of onion (Allium cepa) have been limited to specific developmental stages. Our study measured photosynthesis and transpiration in sixteen plants of a single short-day cultivar over an eleven week period containing both non- and bulb inductive photoperiods. Differences in weekly means for photosynthesis, leaf conductance, water use efficiency, and intercellular CO, were highly significant. Weekly photosynthetic means increased under a non-inductive photoperiod and peaked one week after initiating a bulb inducing photoperiod. A decrease and leveling period occurred as bulbs developed followed by a decrease as foliage lodged. Weekly photosynthetic and leaf conductance means were correlated and highly significant. Water use efficiency and intercellular CO, means remained fairly constant throughout the study suggesting that photosynthesis in unstressed onions was controlled by internal mechanisms instead of stomata.
Daniel Warnock, William Randle, and Mark Rieger
Bruce D. Kelley and J. Scott Cameron
Several anatomical and physiological parameters were measured in 32 genotypes of fragaia, including the cultivated strawberry (frapria × ananassa) and its progenitor speck F. chiloensis and F. virginiana Measurements were made using potted. runner-propagated, &month-old greenhouse-grown plants growing under long day (14/10) conditions.
Significant differences in CO2 assimilation rates (leaf area and dry weight bases). leaf chlorophyll content, leaf soluble protein content, and leaf anatomy were found between subspecies of F. virginana as well as among species. Recessed stomata and greater water use efficiency were observed in F. virginana ssp glauca as well as in F. chiloensis genotypes. In addition, it appears that leaf anatomy characteristics, as studied using light microscopy, may he useful in corroborating taxonomic decisions based upon gross morphology in Fragaria.
K.A. Shackel, V. Novello, and E.G. Sutter
The relative contribution of stomatal and cuticular conductance to transpiration from whole tissue-cultured apple shoots of Malus pumila Mill. M.26 was determined with a modified steady state porometer. When shoots were exposed to 90% RH and high boundary layer conductance, large (73%) and, in some eases, rapid (2 to 3 hours) reductions in leaf conductance occurred, indicating functional stomata. Stomatal closure was also observed microscopically. A maximum estimate for the cuticular conductance of these apple leaves was 18 to 40 mmol·m-2·s-1, which is lower than previous estimates and close to the upper limit of naturally occurring leaf cuticular conductances. Hence, both stomatal and cuticular restrictions of water loss appear to be of importance in determining the water balance of tissue-cultured apple loots. The pathway of water transport in relation to water stress of tissue-cultured shoots is also discussed.
N.K. Lownds, M. Banaras, and P.W. Bosland
Physical characteristics [initial water content, surface area, surface area: volume (SA: V) ratio, cuticle weight, epicuticular wax content, and surface morphology] were examined to determine relationships between physical properties and water-loss `rate in pepper fruits. `Keystone', `NuMex R Naky', and `Santa Fe Grande' peppers, differing in physical characteristics, were stored at 8, 14, or 20C. Water-loss rate increased linearly with storage time at each temperature and was different for each cultivar. Water-loss rate was positively correlated with initial water content at 14 and 20C, SA: V ratio at all temperatures, and cuticle thickness at 14 and 20C. Water-loss rate was negatively correlated with surface area and epicuticular wax content at all temperatures. Stomata were absent on the fruit surface, and epicuticular wax was amorphous for each cultivar.
Robert M. Welker, Richard P. Marini, and Douglas G. Pfeiffer
White apple leafhopper (WALH; Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee) feeding damage on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) leaves was examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. WALH created feeding holes in the (lower) abaxial epidermis, with no visible exterior evidence of cell injury to the adaxial (upper) epidermis. Feeding holes were located in areas of the leaf with high stomatal density and were near stomata. Groups of cells in the palisade layers were empty or contained coagulated cell contents. Adjacent, apparently noninjured, palisade cells contained an abundance of starch granules, possibly indicating that photoassimilate export was impaired. Spongy mesophyll cells abaxial to the feeding area were left intact as were the epidermal cells adaxial to the feeding area. External views of either epidermis and internal leaf views of injured cells indicated no cell wall collapse.
The effect of water stress on photosynthesis was investigated in strawberry plants to see responses of different aged-leaves within the same plant. Preliminary results indicated that, under severe stress (SS) conditions, young leaves had lower water potentials and higher photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rates than old leaves had, due to higher stomatal conductance in young leaves. This situation was not found in moderately stressed or well–watered plants, probably because of the higher non-stomatal limitation in old leaves under SS condition. Under SS condition, old leaves had a higher intracellular CO2 concentration. Osmotic adjustment or acclimation might occur during slow drying process, so that the young leaves could adjust their stomata and still remain open under low water potentials.
Masaki Yahata, Hisato Kunitake, Tsutomu Yabuya, Kensuke Yamashita, Yukiko Kashihara, and Haruki Komatsu
To produce the homozygous strain of a haploid plant derived from small seed-derived seedlings of `Banpeiyu' pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck), we carried out colchicine treatment to axillary shoot buds of the haploid. Many shoots with cytochimeras (X+2X and 2X+4X) arose from the colchicine-treated axillary buds. When cytochimeric buds of 2X+4X were top-grafted onto trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], a complete diploid shoot with 18 chromosomes was obtained from the cytochimera. This diploid strain showed vigorous growth compared with the original haploid. The leaf weight per unit area and the stomata size in this diploid were significantly larger than those of the original haploid plant, and were almost equal to those of `Banpeiyu' pummelo. The diploid strain was confirmed to be a doubled haploid of a haploid from `Banpeiyu' pummelo, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and chromosome composition analysis by chromomycin A3 (CMA) staining.
L. H. Fuchigami, T. Y. Cheng, and A. Soeldner
Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate leaf epicuticular wax of Prunus instititia L. ‘Pixie’ from aseptically cultured plants before and after acclimatization to the greenhouse. Leaves from plants acclimatized for 2 weeks in the greenhouse had more adaxial wax than those from non-acclimatized (culture flask-grown) plants. Acclimatized plants had more adaxial than abaxial wax. No abaxial wax was observed on leaves of non-acclimatized plants. Stomata were present on the abaxial leaf surface only of both acclimatized and non-acclimatized plants. Epicuticular wax layers surrounded guard cells of acclimatized plant leaves but were not present on non-acclimatized plant leaves. Weight changes in non-acclimatized plant leaves coated with silicon rubber on adaxial, abaxial, and both surfaces indicated that excised leaf water loss occurred only through the abaxial surface. Water loss from plants during the acclimatization process thus may be due to abaxial cuticular and stomatal transpiration.
Ni Lee, Hazel Y. Wetzstein, and Harry E. Sommer
The anatomy of in vitro- and in vivo-developed leaves of sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., grown under three quantum fluxes (PPF), was evaluated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Leaf characteristics of both in vitro- and in vivo-developed plants were modified by light: high irradiance was associated with more compact mesophyll and larger cells than low irradiance. However, when compared to plants grown in vivo under corresponding irradiance levels, all plants grown in vitro had smaller, thinner leaves and smaller mesophyll cells lacking extensive vacuolar components. Leaves developed in vitro had larger, raised stomata regardless of light level and, except at the highest irradiance, exhibited significantly greater stomatal densities than in vivo-developed leaves.
W.L. Ackerman and Ao-luo Zhang
The dorsal (lower) surfaces of leaf samples taken from 38 species of Camellia were examined for distinctive characters which might serve as an aid in taxonomic characterization of subgenera and sections in Camellia. A simple technique involving cyanoacrylate adhesives was used to prepare microscope slides for examination with a light microscope equipped with differential interference contrast optics. Specific characteristics studied included the distribution of stomata, the shape and size of guard, subsidiary, and other epidermal cells, and the presence or absence of epidermal hairs and gland and corky cells. Characteristics of epidermal cells on the dorsal surfaces of Camellia leaves can serve as a technique for the classification of species and cultivars and in the verification of species purity or determination of hybrid status.