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Rose Palumbo, Wai-Foong Hong, Guo-Liang Wang, Jinguo Hu, Richard Craig, James Locke, Charles Krause, and David Tay

flower color, leaf shape, and scent ( Van der Walt, 1977 ; Van der Walt and Vorster, 1988 ). The interest in breeding has led to many improved or novel cultivars. In fact, efforts have been made to improve cultivars through somaclonal variation

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Barbara J. Smith

). Tissue culture-induced (somaclonal) variation is another strategy being pursued for generating disease-resistant genotypes. Hammerschlag et al. (2006) screened shoots regenerated from leaf explants of six commercially important cultivars for resistance

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Samir C. Debnath and Danny L. Barney

short shoots for subsequent rooting and plantlet establishment. Because adventitious shoots may have an increased frequency of somaclonal variation ( Huetteman and Preece, 1993 ) and the clonal fidelity of “short shoots” is more questionable than that of

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Susan M. Hawkins and Carol D. Robacker

, we sought to minimize the time spent culturing callus, as longer times in callus can increase the chance of somaclonal variation ( Neibaur et al., 2008 ). In addition, we used immature inflorescences as our explant, to preserve the genotype of the

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Chunxian Chen, Jude W. Grosser, Milica Ćalović, Patricia Serrano, Gemma Pasquali, Julie Gmitter, and Fred G. Gmitter Jr

regenerating from fusions involving ‘W. Murcott’ tangor, which were kept for a somaclonal variation experiment. Developing tetraploid shoots were rooted on RMAN medium in Magenta boxes ( Grosser and Gmitter, 1990 ). Plantlets were transplanted into Cone

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David C. Zlesak and Neil O. Anderson

is warranted to document LSV titer in ‘Nellie White’ and its effects on greenhouse forcing. “Somaclonal variation” is a term coined to describe the variability that can arise in ramets of a clone through in vitro culture ( Larkin and Scowcroft, 1981

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ChihCheng T. Chao and Robert R. Krueger

somaclonal variation (off types). These somaclonal variants exhibit several typical phenotypes, including variegation in leaves, variation in leaf structure and overall plant growth patterns, trees that do not form inflorescences or produce abnormal floral

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Qingrong Sun, Meijuan Sun, Hongyan Sun, Richard L. Bell, Linguang Li, Wei Zhang, and Jihan Tao

genetic modification by transformation, and also is a basis for the use of somaclonal variation by in vitro induced mutation. Efficient in vitro rooting of shoots is a critical step in rapid micropropagation of rootstocks. Losses at this step will have

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Mohammad Majdi, Ghasem Karimzadeh, Mohammad A. Malboobi, Reza Omidbaigi, and Ghader Mirzaghaderi

, H. Asano, M. Sugawara, S. Takagi, H. Saito, H. Nakata, M. Godo, T. Hara, Y. Amano, J. 2006 Somaclonal variation in Tricyrtis hirta plants regenerated from 1-year

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Jane Kahia, Peter Kanze Sallah, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouame, Margaret Kirika, Simeon Niyitegeka, and Theodore Asiimwe

intermediate callus phase increases the possibility of somaclonal variations ( Kahia, 1999 ). Furthermore, a highly efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system is an absolute prerequisite for producing transgenic plants. Materials and Methods The