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V.H. Escalona, F. Artés-Hernández, and F. Artés

Freshly harvested bulbs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce) `Clio' were sliced at 5 °C, dipped in 100 mg·L–1 NaOCl solution, and packaged in passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) by using trays covered and thermal sealed with unperforated or perforated polypropylene film. According to common commercial needs a shelf life of 14 d at 0 and 5 °C was applied. The respiration rate of fresh-cut fennel was 1.3- to 1.7-fold higher at 5 °C than at 0 °C, and was 1.4- to 1.8-fold higher than that reported for whole bulbs. MAP did not prevent the declines in SSC and TA that occurred during storage, while pH did not change. Water loss was lower than 0.1% in all treatments, and no decay or physiological disorders developed during storage. The gas compositions of 16 to 18 kPa O2 plus 2 to 4 kPa CO2 generated within the perforated packages at 0 and 5 °C or 1.5 to 2 kPa O2 plus 18 to 20 kPa CO2 in unperforated packages at 5 °C did not inhibit browning on the cut surface or other sensory changes of the slices. However, atmospheres in unperforated packages of 4 to 6 kPa O2 plus 10 to 14 kPa CO2 at 0 °C maintained the sensory quality like at harvest.

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Djamila Rekika, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Martine Deschênes, Audrey Levasseur, Marie Thérèse Charles, Rong Tsao, and Raymond Yang

Eighteen strawberry genotypes were evaluated for their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity using several methods. High antioxidant capacity was found for `Harmonie', `Saint-Jean d'Orléans', and `Saint-Laurent d'Orléans', which were reported to have better shelf life than `Kent'. `Harmonie', `Saint-Jean d'Orléans', `Orléans', and some advanced selections had higher hydroxycinnamic acids, benzoic acids, and flavonols than `Kent'. The significant variation in antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds clearly shows the potential value of certain new cultivars and advanced lines as parents in a breeding program. The future plan is to examine individual antioxidant and their role in disease resistance and extension of shelf life and to use selected genotypes as parents to developed new lines.

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Ambani R. Mudau, Mpumelelo M. Nkomo, Puffy Soundy, Hintsa T. Araya, Wonder Ngezimana, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

shelf life of fruit and vegetables has been traditionally known and determined by means of visual appearance, including freshness, color, absenteeism of decay, and texture ( Ayala-Zavala et al., 2004 ). Storage conditions influence the phytochemical

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Keith A. Funnell and Royal D. Heins

The postharvest quality of potted Asiflorum lily `Donau' (Lilium hybrid) was evaluated after plants were sprayed with 0, 50, 250, or 500 mg·L-1 (BA equivalent) of Promalin (GA4+7 to BA ratio was 1:1) or Accel (GA4+7 to BA ratio 1:10) and stored at 2 to 3 °C for 0, 10, or 20 days. As storage was prolonged, more leaves senesced once plants were removed for evaluation. Leaf senescence declined with increasing concentrations of either Promalin or Accel, but Promalin was more effective. Application of 250 mg·L-1 Promalin completely eliminated leaf senescence over the 20-day shelf-life evaluation period, irrespective of duration of cold storage. The treatments did not affect flower bud opening or plant height. Chemical names used: gibberellin (GA4+7); benzyladenine (BA).

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Sara Atrash, Asghar Ramezanian, Majid Rahemi, Reza Mostofizadeh Ghalamfarsa, and Elhadi Yahia

quality and increase the shelf life of horticultural crops, postharvest treatments are usually needed. Green mold caused by P. digitatum is one of the most damaging postharvest diseases of citrus fruits ( Smilanick et al., 2006 ). Chemical fungicides are

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Jonathan Tong, Cyril Rakovski, and Anuradha Prakash

temperatures, which negatively impacts product quality and shelf life. For these reasons, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) followed by cold treatment are now used for grapes exported to Australia ( Chervin et al., 2012 ). Ionizing irradiation

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Yanjun Guo, Terri Starman, and Charles Hall

needed. We determined whether plants produced with WR-SMC acclimated to infrequent irrigation during simulated shelf life and analyzed the economics of these irrigation methods by considering production inputs and shrinkage through the market channels

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Martine Deschênes, Audrey Levasseur, Odile Carisse, Marie Thérèse Charles, Djamila Rekika, Louis Gauthier, André Gosselin, Rong Tsao, Raymond Yang, Jennifer DeEll, and J. Alan Sullivan

large, very firm, light-red (Royal Horticultural Society color chart 43A or 44A) ( Royal Horticultural Society, 1995 ) shiny fruit ( Table 1 ; Fig. 1 ), with an excellent shelf life and resistance to leaf diseases ( Khanizadeh and Cousineau, 2005 ). The

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O.L. Lau and R. Yastremski

`Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) were subjected to either 0C controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage or to a postharvest coating of 1.0% to 2.5% Nutri-Save (NS; a polysaccharide derived from shellfish) plus air storage. NS-coated apples were greener and firmer and had higher titratable acidity (TA) and more shrivelled and injured fruit than the control after storage in air at 0C for 5 to 6 months and ripening in air at 20C for 7 days. Poststorage washing increased skin injury, and low relative humidity during ripening increased shriveling of NS fruit. NS applications led to an accumulation of CO2 and C2H4 and a small reduction of O2 in the fruit core cavities. The use of 1.5% O2 + 1.5% CO2 in the storage atmosphere was more effective than NS plus air storage in maintaining flesh firmness (FF) and TA without increasing fruit shrivel or skin injury. NS treatments maintained FF and a green skin in fruit ripened in air at 20C for 2 or 4 weeks following harvest, but some shrivel was evident by 4 weeks. Better retention of skin greenness was the only benefit derived from a poststorage NS treatment of CA-stored fruit during the shelf-life test.

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Jeanine M. Davis, Douglas C. Sanders, Paul V. Nelson, Laura Lengnick, and Wade J. Sperry

Boron deficiency in fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a widespread problem that reduces yield and fruit quality but is often not recognized by growers. Tomatoes were grown in field and hydroponic culture to compare the effects of foliar and soil applied B on plant growth, fruit yield, fruit quality, and tissue nutrient levels. Regardless of application method, B was associated with increased tomato growth and the concentration of K, Ca, and B in plant tissue. Boron application was associated with increased N uptake by tomato in field culture, but not under hydroponic culture. In field culture, foliar and/or soil applied B similarly increased fresh-market tomato plant and root dry weight, uptake, and tissue concentrations of N, Ca, K, and B, and improved fruit set, total yields, marketable yields, fruit shelf life, and fruit firmness. The similar growth and yield responses of tomato to foliar and root B application suggests that B is translocated in the phloem in tomatoes. Fruit from plants receiving foliar or root applied B contained more B, and K than fruit from plants not receiving B, indicating that B was translocated from leaves to fruit and is an important factor in the management of K nutrition in tomato.