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Victoria Ann Surrage, Claudia Lafrenière, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

production, because it directly affects the availability of water and nutrients to the plant. Materials such as aged pine bark, coconut coir, compost, peatmoss, perlite, sand, vermiculite, and wood byproducts (e.g., sawdust, composted pine bark) can

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Thayne Montague and Lindsey Fox

base of selected trees to form a 2.3-m diameter circle. On 29 Mar., composted pine bark mulch (screened to ≈5.0 cm) was placed around trees with steel edging to a depth of 10.2 cm. Pine bark mulch was maintained at this depth throughout the experiment

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Michelle S. McGinnis, Stuart L. Warren, and Ted E. Bilderback

and Hartenstein, 1981 ). During the process, earthworms and microorganisms stabilize organic waste in an aerobic, moist, nonthermophillic environment ( Sylvia et al., 2005 ). The resulting product has been successfully marketed as a pine bark amendment

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Johann S. Buck and Michael R. Evans

composed of 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% RH3 or peat with the remainder of the volume being perlite, PBH, or 1-cm diameter screened aged pine bark. The substrate components were blended in a rotary mixer for 1 min at 50 rpm. The substrate TPS, AFP, WHC, BD

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Andrew G. Ristvey, John D. Lea-Cox, and David S. Ross

a composted pine bark media consisting of equal parts composted pine bark, sphagnum peat, and rice hulls and amended with iron sulfate (0.22 kg·m −3 ) and Micromax (The Scotts Co.) micronutrients (0.68 kg·m −3 ). Plants received an initial nutrient

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Robert D. Wright, Brian E. Jackson, Michael C. Barnes, and Jake F. Browder

Pine bark (PB) and peatmoss are the two most common substrate components currently used for horticultural crop production in the southeastern United States. The availability and cost of PB remain unpredictable due to reduced forestry production and

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Daniel C. Milbocker

Pyrus calleryana, Decne, `Aristocrat'; Cryptomeria japonica, D. Don; Populus maximowiczii, Henry × `Androscoggin' and Koelreuteria bipinnata, Franch. trees were grown in low-profile containers. The optimum height and width of these containers was 20 to 30 cm and 84 cm, respectively. Pine bark and mixtures containing 50% or more of pine bark were preferable to mixtures containing leaf mold for filling the containers because the former weigh less. Roots penetrated pine bark mixtures better than sphagnum peat mixtures and also retained their shape better during transplanting. When grown in low-profile containers, trees grew fibrous root systems; after transplanting, roots grew downwardly radial and trees were able to withstand extremely difficult landscape conditions.

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Katie L. Dylewski, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, and Charlene LeBleu

.64P–9.96K controlled-release fertilizer (8-month, Polyon®; Pursell Industries, Sylacauga, AL). Calcined clay is a mineral substrate that is well-drained and similar to a sandy soil. Pine bark:peat is an organic substrate that is water retaining and

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Bruno Casamali, Rebecca L. Darnell, Alisson P. Kovaleski, James W. Olmstead, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

( Darnell and Hiss, 2006 ). To grow cultivated blueberry, including SHB, on typical agricultural soils (i.e., higher pH and lower organic matter), soil amendments are required. In the southeastern United States, pine bark beds or pine bark incorporated into

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Linda L. Taylor, Alexander X. Niemiera, Robert D. Wright, Gregory K. Evanylo, and Wade E. Thomason

nitrification ( Prosser, 1989 ). This heterotrophic pathway is thought to occur in some acid forest soils ( Brierley and Wood, 2001 ; Lang and Jagnow, 1986 ). Nitrification has been verified in peat ( Elliott, 1986 ) and pine bark ( Niemiera and Wright, 1986b