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Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed, Tripti Vashisth, Mercy A. Olmstead, James W. Olmstead, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

, Cambridge, MA). Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Mapper tool ( Kanehisa et al., 2017 ) was used to determine the metabolic pathways that involve the enzymes encoded by DEGs. Analysis of gene expression using real

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Suping Zhou, Marsha Palmer, Jing Zhou, Sarabjit Bhatti, Kevin J. Howe, Tara Fish, and Theodore W. Thannhauser

)] affected by the stress. These proteins are responsible for various functions thus affecting multiple cellular functional pathways. As a result of such systematic and multifaceted changes from gene expression to physiological and biochemical reactions in

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Ni Jia, Qing-Yan Shu, Dan-Hua Wang, Liang-Sheng Wang, Zheng-An Liu, Hong-Xu Ren, Yan-Jun Xu, Dai-Ke Tian, and Kenneth Michael Tilt

proportion of Pn; in other words, the metabolic pathway of Pn dominated in herbaceous peony species. Table 4. Mean petal anthocyanin values of nine wild herbaceous peony species (15 accessions) in the genus Paeonia . The petal anthocyanin

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Shutian Tao, Danyang Wang, Cong Jin, Wei Sun, Xing Liu, Shaoling Zhang, Fuyong Gao, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

widely believed that C4H catalyzes the conversion of trans -cinnamic acid to hydroxycinnamic acid, which is derived from phenylalanine by the action of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and located in the second step of the phenylpropanoid pathway ( Hahlbrock

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Holger Weichert, Stefanie Peschel, Moritz Knoche, and Dieter Neumann

aqueous continuum across the sweet cherry fruit exocarp that is referred to as the polar pathway ( Weichert and Knoche, 2006a ). Polar pathways are formed by hydration and orientation of polar functional groups in the cuticular membrane [CM ( Beyer et al

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, and Bryan T. Vinyard

, neoxanthin, total lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-b) pathway carotenoids (zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin + neoxanthin), lutein, and total carotenoid. Using SAS (Version 9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC) PROC GLIMMIX to obtain variance component estimates

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Lixiang Miao, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaofang Yang, Jinping Xiao, Huiqin Zhang, Ming Jiang, Zuofa Zhang, Yuezhi Wang, and Guihua Jiang

‘Tudnew’ ( Silva et al., 2007 ). However, studies on strawberries have focused on the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and have no information on UDP-sugars. Fruits grown under blue plastic film had significantly more SUG than those grown under other

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Rongrong Duan, Deke Xing, Tian Chen, and Yanyou Wu

Nitrate (NO 3 – ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ) are the primary nitrogen sources for higher plants ( Cui et al., 2017 ; Poothong and Reed, 2016 ; Tho et al., 2017 ). High- and low-affinity transport systems (HATS and LATS) are the main pathways for the

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David M. Czarnecki II and Zhanao Deng

UFG formation and fertilization with normal n male gametes, and that there exist two or more pathways for polyploidization at each of the ploidy levels in L . camara . It is conceivable that the existence of multiple polyploidization pathways could

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Jin Jiao, Xing Liu, Juyou Wu, Guohua Xu, and Shaoling Zhang

signals [such as auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid (ABA)] via the receptor protein kinase; thus, the MAPK cascade is rapidly activated. To date, the responses of many MAPK genes to abiotic stress and their molecular signaling pathways have been widely