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Esendugue Greg Fonsah, Gerard Krewer, Kerry Harrison, and Michael Bruorton

successful: 1) planting in pine bark beds ≈6 to 8 inches deep with overhead irrigation, 2) planting in high organic matter (greater than 3%) spodic-type or allied sand soil series, and 3) planting in sand or loamy sand soils and amending the soil with pine

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Lisa W. DeVetter, Inga A. Zasada, and Cedar Hesse

.) activity and reduce photosynthetic capacity of plants ( Barney et al., 2007 ; Golchin et al., 1995 ; Jackson et al., 2003 ; Magdoff and van Es, 2009 ; Tanigoshi et al., 2003 ). The highest percentage of soil organic matter is present on or near the soil

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Carl J. Rosen and Cindy B.S. Tongn

Two on-farm field studies were conducted in 1996 and repeated in 1997 to determine the effects of soil amendments and scape (flower stalk) removal on yield, dry matter partitioning, and storage quality of hardneck garlic (Allium sativum L.). One study site was on a loamy sand soil with low organic matter and fertility and the other site was on a sandy loam soil with high organic matter and fertility. Soil amendment treatments tested at both sites were: 1) no amendment, 2) composted manure, and 3) inorganic fertilizer according to soil test recommendations. A fourth treatment, dried, composted turkey-manure-based fertilizer, was included at the low organic matter site. Scapes were removed at the curled stage from plants in half of the harvest rows. Scapes from the remainder of the harvest row plants were allowed to mature until harvest. In 1997, bulbs from each treatment were stored at 0 to 3 °C or 19 to 21 °C for 6 months. Soil amendment treatments had no effect on total garlic bulb yield, dry mass partitioning, or stored bulb weight loss at the sandy loam, high organic matter site. Manure compost, fertilizer, and composted turkey manure soil amendments reduced the yield of smaller bulbs compared with the control at the loamy sand, low organic matter site. The proportion of bulbs >5 cm was highest with the manure compost treatment. At the low organic matter site, scape removal resulted in a 15% increase in bulb yield and an increase in bulb size compared with leaving scapes on until harvest (P = 0.05). At the high organic matter site, scape removal increased bulb yield by 5% (P = 0.10). Scape removal increased dry matter partitioning to the bulbs, but had no effect on total (scape + shoot + bulb) aboveground dry matter production. The increase in bulb dry mass when scapes were removed was offset by an increase in scape dry mass when scapes were left on. Bulb weight loss in storage was less at 0 to 3 °C than 19 to 21 °C. Soil amendments only affected bulb storage quality at the loamy sand, low soil organic matter site. The effect of scape removal on bulb weight loss was nonsignificant at either location.

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Edward L. McCoy

reasonably narrow range of particle size distributions. Amendment properties Organic amendments. The most common organic amendments are either native peats or composts. Organic matter content is the most important characteristic of an organic amendment and is

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Raymond Kruse and Ajay Nair

tillage or herbicides. Although effective, herbicides and excessive tillage lead to environmental issues such as herbicide-resistant weeds ( Chatham et al., 2015 ) and reduced soil organic matter ( Reicosky et al., 1995 ). Cover crops are an alternative to

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S. J. Stavarek and D. W. Rains


Plants are exposed to many nutritional problems in the environment. The interaction of soil pH, mineral reserves, moisture content, and organic matter content are just a few of the factors influencing the availability of nutrients and the type of mineral stress affecting a plant (48).

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Lindsay M. Jordan, Thomas Björkman, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry [ICP-AES (Spectro; Ametek Materials Analysis Division, Kleve, Germany)], organic matter content from loss on ignition, and wet aggregate stability according to the Cornell Soil Health Test ( Gugino et al., 2009

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Dan TerAvest, Jeffrey L. Smith, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, Lori Hoagland, David Granatstein, and John P. Reganold

sandy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic Aridic Haploxerol), averaging 1% to 2% organic matter with a pH of 7.0. Annual rainfall at the orchard site averages 21.6 cm. The study site was previously planted to sweet cherry; after stump removal and disking

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Haley Rylander, Anusuya Rangarajan, Ryan M. Maher, Mark G. Hutton, Nicholas W. Rowley, Margaret T. McGrath, and Zachary F. Sexton

retention and infiltration, and soil organic matter and microbial populations ( Franzluebbers, 2002 ; Hungria et al., 2009 ; TerArvest et al., 2015 ; Want et al., 2014 ). Tarping has emerged as a practice used by small-scale organic farmers in the

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Ivan dos Santos Pereira, Luciano Picolotto, Michél Aldrighi Gonçalves, Gerson Kleinick Vignolo, and Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

.01% leaf N, respectively. It is possible that a N decrease in response to K rates occurred because K absorption increases demand of N ( Castaño et al., 2008 ). The N demand may have been even greater because the concentration of organic matter in the soil