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Yung-I. Lee, Chia-Fu Lu, Mei-Chu Chung, Edward C. Yeung, and Nean Lee

propagation technique for most orchids. Nevertheless, seeds of a few genera of terrestrial orchids are still considered difficult to germinate ( Kano, 1968 ). The causes of low germination may relate to the impermeability of the seedcoat ( Lee et al., 2005

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Jialin Yu, Nathan S. Boyd, and Zhengfei Guan

66 cm. A single drip tape with emitters every 30 cm and a flow rate of 0.95 L·min −1 per 30.5 m (Jain Irrigation, Inc., Haines City, FL) was installed in the center of the bed. The bed was covered with virtually impermeable film plastic mulch (Berry

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Ali Akbar Ghasemi Soloklui, Ali Gharaghani, Nnadozie Oraguzie, and Armin Saed-Moucheshi

were dried in the shade under ventilation, treated with a commercial fungicide (Captan, 6 mL diluted in 10 mL of water per kg of seeds), packed up in permeable paper bags, wrapped in an impermeable plastic bag, and stored in a cold chamber at 5 °C. For

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez and Touria E. Eaton

sections of the field. There was an impermeable clay layer 30- to 40-cm deep in the soil profile that probably allowed water to flow from upper to lower areas within the farm. Leaf gas exchange. In 2010, the effect of irrigation rate on leaf gas exchange

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Stephen Patrick Greer and Timothy A. Rinehart

, which is most likely the result of increased permeability of the seedcoat, the induction of processes needed for proliferation of the embryo, or both. Conversely, dormant seedcoat impermeability, metabolic quiescence, or both of these factors seemed to

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Xue-Min Hou, Zi-Hua Wang, Xi-Min Deng, and Guo-Hui Li

; Ruíz-Sánchez et al., 1993 ), displaying a nonlinear region and then a linear region after considerable water was extracted. The increase in the SSC of extracted juice suggested that the plasma membrane of apple fruit cells was not totally impermeable to

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Timothy Coolong

.1-mil-thick totally impermeable film plastic mulch [60 inches wide (Vaporsafe RM; Raven Industries, Sioux Falls, SD)]. Black mulches were used in spring plantings, whereas white-on-black mulches were used in the fall. Soils were fumigated with

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Daniel I. Leskovar, Chenping Xu, and Shinsuke Agehara

unit leaf area) showed only slight and transient increases. Enhanced root-zone temperature, especially during the spring season, and reduced soil water evaporation resulting from a high degree of impermeability of plastic mulches to water vapor are the

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Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, Mossad Khairy Maamoun, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Antar Nasr El-Banna, Hail Z. Rihan, Ahmed Salamh, Ahmed A. Al-Aizari, and Michael P. Fuller

to reach 50% of final germination percentage (GT 50 ), and seed length vigor index (SLVI) in black cumin after 30 d in culture during Oct. 2018 at the farm of Kafrelsheikh University (Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt). The impermeability of resistant seeds

Open access

Edgar L. Vinson III, Kaitlyn J. Price, J. Raymond Kessler, Elina D. Coneva, Masuzyo Mwanza, and Matthew D. Price

-mils was installed at a depth of 8 cm. Emitter spacing was 30 cm, and emitter flow rate was 0.0032 L·h –1 ·m –1 , which supplied irrigation at a rate of 25 mm·week –1 . Each row was covered with black, 4-mil very impermeable (VIF) polyethylene mulch