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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

·m −2 ·s −1 delivered from high-pressure sodium lamps or ( C ) LED arrays delivering 100 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 of 100:0 red:blue, ( D ) 100 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 of 87:13 red:blue, ( E ) 100 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 of 50:50 red:blue, ( F ) 25 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 of 0

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Krishna Nemali

could hasten maturity in plants ( Bailey, 1891 ). Fig. 7. Electric lighting models developed during the 19th and 20th centuries. ( A ) Carbon arc lamp. ( B ) Mazda incandescent lamp. ( C ) High-pressure sodium lamp. ( D ) Different colors of light

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Marc W. van Iersel and David Gianino

2 concentrations. Campanula portenschlagiana was grown under long day conditions (19-h photoperiod) with supplemental light from high-pressure sodium lamps at a PPF of ≈60 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 whenever ambient PPF dropped below 198 μmol·m −2 ·s −1

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A. Maaike Wubs, Ep Heuvelink, Leo F.M. Marcelis, Gerhard H. Buck-Sorlin, and Jan Vos

and the same architecture could be established in all plants. Supplemental light was provided by high-pressure sodium lamps (600 W; Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands), which provided 150 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at crop level. Lamps were switched on between

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Mahmoud Panjtandoust and David J. Wolyn

supplement with a 16-h photoperiod provided by high-pressure sodium lamps. Individual crowns with at least one vigorous spear were classified as surviving the freezing treatment. Metabolite analysis. Carbohydrate concentrations were determined using

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Oliver Körner, Jesper Mazanti Aaslyng, Andrea Utoft Andreassen, and Niels Holst

were continuously measured, averaged over 5 min, and stored in a data logger (CR10X; Campbell Scientific, Logan, Utah). Supplementary lighting was used (see Table 1 ). Ten high-pressure sodium lamps (SON-T, 400 W; Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

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Po-Lung Chia and Chieri Kubota

. Similarly, use of an oscillating aluminum parabolic reflector used for high-pressure sodium lamps [such as one examined by Blanchard and Runkle (2010) to control flowering] may be combined with such high-output FR LEDs to achieve a necessary saturation

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Celina Gómez and Cary A. Mitchell

increasing total DLI. High-pressure sodium lamps are the most widely used electric light source for greenhouse SL during transplant production. In general, HPS lamps provide an orange-biased spectrum by primarily emitting light in the range of 565 to 700 nm

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Shengping Zhang, Han Miao, Xing-fang Gu, Yuhong Yang, Bingyan Xie, Xiaowu Wang, Sanwen Huang, Yongchen Du, Rifei Sun, and Todd C. Wehner

basis) and was steam sterilized at 134 °C for 30 min. Seedlings were placed in a growth chamber held at 25/20 °C day/night with a 16-h photoperiod. Illumination was provided by high-pressure sodium lamps at 50 W·m −2 . Identification materials were

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Christopher Parry and Bruce Bugbee

studies were conducted in a spatially uniform greenhouse environment in the Research Greenhouse Complex at Utah State University, Logan (lat. 41.7°N, 111.8°W). To achieve rapid growth rates in all studies, supplemental lighting from high-pressure sodium