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H.M. Mathers, S.B. Lowe, C. Scagel, D.K. Struve, and L.T. Case

several hours ( Ruter and Ingram, 1990 ). One method of dealing with heat stress in container production is to use containers with alternative colors or composition instead of black plastic. Black plastic pots act as heat sinks because of their ability to

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, Kelly St. John, Mohammad Yamin Kabir, J. Alberto Alvarado-Chávez, Ania M. Cutiño-Jiménez, Jesús Bautista, Gunawati Gunawan, and Savithri U. Nambeesan

important role in ameliorating heat stress and water stress by reducing solar radiation, and as a result reducing leaf temperature and leaf transpiration through a decrease in evaporative demand between leaves and the surrounding air. Postharvest fruit

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Kuan-Hung Lin, Shao-Bo Huang, Chun-Wei Wu, and Yu-Sen Chang

Heat stress affects the phenotype of plants, causing leaf etiolation and wilting, and alters the anatomy, physiology, and photosynthetic capability of plants ( Szymańska et al., 2017 ). High-temperature conditions can potentially cause the

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Adam Bolton, Aneela Nijabat, Muhammad Mahmood-ur-Rehman, Naima Huma Naveed, A.T.M. Majharul Mannan, Aamir Ali, Mohamed A. Rahim, and Philipp Simon

). Modern climate models have predicted that mean global temperature will rise by 1.1 °C by the end of this century and intense heat waves will also occur more frequently ( IPCC, 2013 ). Heat stress, caused by elevated temperature, is a major threat for

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Huifei Shen, Bing Zhao, Jingjing Xu, Xizi Zheng, and Wenmei Huang

temperature fluctuations, this capacity might not keep pace with global warming, reduced ornamental value, and economic losses ( Tao et al., 2015 ). Heat stress not only affects the phenotype of a plant, causing leaf etiolation and wilting, but it alters the

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Shuyin Liang, Xuan Wu, and David Byrne

-adapted cultivars, the sale of garden roses has decreased 25% to 30% during the past 20 years ( Byrne et al., 2010 ; Hutton, 2012 ; Pemberton and Karlik, 2015 ). High temperature or heat stress is one of the major limiting abiotic factors for plant growth

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Chris A. Martin, Jean C. Stutz, Bruce A. Kimball, Sherwood B. Idso, and David H. Akey

Growth and topological indices of `Eureka' lemon were measured after 6 months in well-watered and well-fertilized conditions and factorial combinations of moderate (29/21C day/night) or high (42/32C day/night) temperatures and ambient (350 to 380 μmol·mol) or elevated (constant 680 μmol·mol-1) CO2. In high temperatures, plants were smaller and had higher levels of leaf chlorophyll a than in moderate temperatures. Moreover, plants in high temperatures and elevated CO2 had about 15 % higher levels of leaf chlorophyll a than those in high temperatures and ambient CO2. In high temperatures, plant growth in elevated CO2 was about 87% more than in ambient CO2. Thus, high CO2 reduced the negative effect of high temperature on shoot growth. In moderate temperatures, plant growth in elevated CO2 was only about 21% more than in ambient CO2. Irrespective of temperature treatments, shoot branch architecture in elevated CO2 was more hierarchical than those in ambient CO2. Specific shoot extension, a topological measure of branch frequency, was not affected by elevated CO2 in moderate temperatures, but was increased by elevated CO2 enrichment in high temperatures-an indication of decreased branch frequency and increased apical dominance. In moderate temperatures, plants in elevated CO2 had fibrous root branch patterns that were less hierarchical than at ambient CO2. The lengths of exterior and interior fibrous roots between branch points and the length of second-degree adventitious lateral branches were increased >50% by high temperatures compared with moderate temperatures. Root length between branch points was not affected by CO2 levels.

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Jinpeng Xing, Yan Xu, Jiang Tian, Thomas Gianfagna, and Bingru Huang

induced by shade or heat stress was examined, and leaf senescence and CK production associated with ipt gene expression were evaluated. Materials and Methods Tissue culture and plant regeneration. Stolons of creeping bentgrass (cv

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Zhou Li, Yan Peng, and Bingru Huang

, 2004 ; Pessarakli, 2007 ). Drought and heat stress injury are typically characterized by leaf dehydration, reflected as a decline in leaf water content or accelerated leaf senescence due to loss of chlorophyll and photosynthetic activities, as well as

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Jinyu Wang, Patrick Burgess, Stacy A. Bonos, William A. Meyer, and Bingru Huang

photosynthetic carbohydrate synthesis ( Huang et al., 2014 ; Wahid et al., 2007 ). Prolonged heat stress typically induces lipid peroxidation and membrane instability with subsequent effects on chlorophyll integrity and net photosynthetic rates in cool