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Raymond A. Cloyd

Pesticides, in this case, insecticides and miticides, are the primary means of controlling arthropod (insect and mite) pests encountered in greenhouse production systems, including greenhouse whitefly ( Trialeurodes vaporariorum ), sweetpotato

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Vinod Kumar, Aref Abdul-Baki, James D. Anderson, and Autar K. Mattoo

J. Mills for statistical analysis; Peter Ewashkow and Antonio G. Pittarelli for help with greenhouse experiments; and Dave Clark for photography.

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Jonathan M. Frantz, Bryon Hand, Lee Buckingham, and Somik Ghose

In many parts of the United States, plants are produced in greenhouses in colder times of the year, for early marketing of ornamental crops ( Moccaldi and Runkle, 2007 ) or early/year-round vegetable production ( Hochmuth and Hochmuth, 1993 ). For

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Benedict C. Posadas, Patricia R. Knight, Christine E.H. Coker, Randal Y. Coker, and Scott A. Langlois

nursery and greenhouse industry as one of the fastest-growing sectors of U.S. agriculture, and is inherently labor intensive with ≈40% of production costs consisting of labor costs ( Kandel, 2008 ; Mathers et al., 2010 ). The most recent estimates by

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Shichao Wang, Xinlu Bai, Jianbin Zhou, and Zhujun Chen

Vegetable production in protected production systems has developed rapidly since the 1980s in China. By 2011, the area of protected production in China reached 4 million ha ( Li et al., 2013 ). Solar greenhouses are rectangular greenhouses 50 to 100

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Marvin P. Pritts, Robert W. Langhans, Thomas H. Whitlow, Mary Jo Kelly, and Aimee Roberts

Floricane-fruiting (summer-bearing) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown outdoors in pots in upstate New York until mid-December when the chilling requirement was fulfilled. They were moved into a greenhouse and placed at a density that is three times higher than field planting. Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) were introduced at flowering for pollination. Fruiting occurred from mid-February through mid-April, a time when the retail price for raspberries is between $3.00 and $6.00 for a half pint (180 g). Fruit quality was high, and individual 2-year-old plants averaged 11 half pints (2 kg) of marketable fruit. These yields and retail prices are equivalent to 19,000 lb and $142,000 per acre (21 t, $350,000 per ha). Raspberry production during winter allows growers to dramatically extend the harvest season and to produce a high-value crop at a time when greenhouses often are empty.

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Matthew G. Blanchard, Erik S. Runkle, Arend-Jan Both, and Hiroshi Shimizu

The commercial production of ornamental greenhouse crops demands that plants be accurately scheduled for predetermined market dates ( Heins et al., 2000 ). The ability to schedule crops requires knowledge of how environmental factors (e

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Lynn Brandenberger, Todd Cavins, Mark Payton, Lynda Wells, and Tina Johnson

produced in the greenhouse ( Hood, 2000 ). Tomatoes ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) are perhaps the most popular, but Snyder (2001) noted that greenhouse tomatoes are difficult because of the processes and time (2 to 5 months) needed to produce the crop

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Doudou Guo, Ziyi Chen, Danfeng Huang, and Jingjin Zhang

With growing interest in local food production using greenhouse technology, fresh and nutritious baby leaf greens are becoming increasingly popular among consumers ( Kroggel et al., 2012 ). Plug trays filled with substrate is used for greenhouse

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Karen L. Panter

Between Dec. 1992 and July 1993, 13 greenhouse operations took part in on-site training programs concerning pesticide application safety. Each program involved a pre-quiz, post-quiz, presentation of two videotapes, discussion, session evaluation, and follow-up evaluation 1 month after each session. A total of 253 Colorado greenhouse employees participated in the programs, which fulfilled the employee training requirements for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication standard concerning hazardous materials in the workplace. Quiz scores increased from the pre- to the post-program quiz, from 17.3 to 22.1 points out of a possible 27. Post-program evaluations indicated that the vast majority of respondents either “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that (percentages in parentheses): “the training program will be helpful” (85%), “I understand hazardous materials better” (81%), “the training videos helped understanding” (84%), and “I would like the training done regularly” (79%). Follow-up evaluations showed that most “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that (percentages in parentheses): “I have used at least one new safe handling practice” since the program (55%), and “I plan to use more” safe handling practices (82%). This method of instructing employees about hazardous materials would be applicable to others interested in safety issues.