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Wei-Ling Chen and Chun-Jung Shen

harvesting ( Dufault, 1999 ; Hung, 1980 ). In recent years, the protected cultivation area of asparagus has been increasing mostly under simple plastic greenhouses. Asparagus can be cultivated throughout the year by integrating the mother stalk culture with

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Wendy K. Hoashi-Erhardt, Patrick P. Moore, Gwenyth E. Windom, and Peter R. Bristow

years to develop, and soil conditions and disease pressure may not be uniform. Greenhouse pot tests ( Bristow et al., 1988 ; Kennedy and Duncan, 1991 ; Laun and Zinkernagel, 1993 ; Wilcox et al., 1999a ) and hydroponic culture systems ( Pattison et al

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Raymond A. Cloyd

Pesticides, in this case, insecticides and miticides, are the primary means of controlling arthropod (insect and mite) pests encountered in greenhouse production systems, including greenhouse whitefly ( Trialeurodes vaporariorum ), sweetpotato

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Vinod Kumar, Aref Abdul-Baki, James D. Anderson, and Autar K. Mattoo

J. Mills for statistical analysis; Peter Ewashkow and Antonio G. Pittarelli for help with greenhouse experiments; and Dave Clark for photography.

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Jonathan M. Frantz, Bryon Hand, Lee Buckingham, and Somik Ghose

In many parts of the United States, plants are produced in greenhouses in colder times of the year, for early marketing of ornamental crops ( Moccaldi and Runkle, 2007 ) or early/year-round vegetable production ( Hochmuth and Hochmuth, 1993 ). For

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Benedict C. Posadas, Patricia R. Knight, Christine E.H. Coker, Randal Y. Coker, and Scott A. Langlois

nursery and greenhouse industry as one of the fastest-growing sectors of U.S. agriculture, and is inherently labor intensive with ≈40% of production costs consisting of labor costs ( Kandel, 2008 ; Mathers et al., 2010 ). The most recent estimates by

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Marvin P. Pritts, Robert W. Langhans, Thomas H. Whitlow, Mary Jo Kelly, and Aimee Roberts

Floricane-fruiting (summer-bearing) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown outdoors in pots in upstate New York until mid-December when the chilling requirement was fulfilled. They were moved into a greenhouse and placed at a density that is three times higher than field planting. Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) were introduced at flowering for pollination. Fruiting occurred from mid-February through mid-April, a time when the retail price for raspberries is between $3.00 and $6.00 for a half pint (180 g). Fruit quality was high, and individual 2-year-old plants averaged 11 half pints (2 kg) of marketable fruit. These yields and retail prices are equivalent to 19,000 lb and $142,000 per acre (21 t, $350,000 per ha). Raspberry production during winter allows growers to dramatically extend the harvest season and to produce a high-value crop at a time when greenhouses often are empty.

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Shichao Wang, Xinlu Bai, Jianbin Zhou, and Zhujun Chen

Vegetable production in protected production systems has developed rapidly since the 1980s in China. By 2011, the area of protected production in China reached 4 million ha ( Li et al., 2013 ). Solar greenhouses are rectangular greenhouses 50 to 100

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Matthew G. Blanchard, Erik S. Runkle, Arend-Jan Both, and Hiroshi Shimizu

The commercial production of ornamental greenhouse crops demands that plants be accurately scheduled for predetermined market dates ( Heins et al., 2000 ). The ability to schedule crops requires knowledge of how environmental factors (e

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Lynn Brandenberger, Todd Cavins, Mark Payton, Lynda Wells, and Tina Johnson

produced in the greenhouse ( Hood, 2000 ). Tomatoes ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) are perhaps the most popular, but Snyder (2001) noted that greenhouse tomatoes are difficult because of the processes and time (2 to 5 months) needed to produce the crop