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Rui Wang, Yuqing Gui, Tiejun Zhao, Masahisa Ishii, Masatake Eguchi, Hui Xu, Tianlai Li, and Yasunaga Iwasaki

Flower initiation is an important transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and is also a determinate stage in plant yield formation ( Blackman, 2017 ). From the first stage of petal growth to the full flower opening, large amounts of

Open access

Marisa Y. Thompson, Jennifer J. Randall, Dawn VanLeeuwen, and Richard J. Heerema

return bloom parameters from the same treated shoots were reported during the 2015 to 2016 growing seasons ( Thompson et al., 2019 ). Previous PGR research of AB of pecan determined that pistillate flower initiation is likely to occur in this timespan

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Fumiomi Takeda and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

cropping systems to influence plant morphogenesis such as internode length, branching, flower initiation, and flower development. A protected environment production system may alter phytochemical content of fruits and vegetables because of selected light

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Jakob Markvart, Eva Rosenqvist, Helle Sørensen, Carl-Otto Ottosen, and Jesper M. Aaslyng

bulbs from 0500 hr to 2000 hr during propagation, acclimation, and during the experiments to avoid flower initiation. During the acclimation and the experiments, supplemental growth light was applied in periods of 5 h accounting for ≈58% of the

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Lee Ann Moccaldi and Erik S. Runkle

( Korczynski et al., 2002 ). Assuming a typical greenhouse light transmission of 50% ( Hanan, 1998 ), ornamental annual crops can be grown under a mean DLI less than 8 mol·m −2 ·d −1 to more than 25 mol·m −2 ·d −1 . Mean DLI can influence flower initiation and

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Mengzi Zhang and Erik S. Runkle

( Borthwick et al., 1952 ). R light promoted lettuce seed germination, whereas subsequent FR inhibited it. This kind of photoreaction response was also established on flower initiation of some model plants. For example, a short period of R light as an NI

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Anke van der Ploeg, Susana M.P. Carvalho, and Ep Heuvelink

temperatures ( Table 2 ) is probably due to delayed flower initiation and slower flower development ( Karlsson et al., 1989a ; Van der Ploeg et al., 2007a ). Furthermore, plants flower later at lower light levels ( Karlsson and Heins, 1986 ; Karlsson et al

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Yuan-Tsung Chang, Shyh-Shyan Wang, Der-Ming Yeh, and Wen-Ju Yang

plastic houses between July and October (11 to 18 °C, 12- to 13.5-h day lengths) for flower initiation and then move them back to the lowland area for flowering in winter when the price is high. Introducing the Type II flowering characteristics into the

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Ariana P. Torres and Roberto G. Lopez

; Pizano, 2005 ). By determining the environmental requirements (i.e., temperature and light) for flower initiation and development, growers can minimize production time and costs, maximize plant biomass, use greenhouse space more effectively, and increase

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Luise Ehrich, Christian Ulrichs, and Heiner Grüneberg

plants in centimeters, starting date of anthesis, percentage of flowering plants for each species/treatment combination as well as number of inflorescences per plant and number of flower primordia per inflorescence. During the trials, flower initiation