-Astúa et al., 2007 ; Raju et al., 1982 ). Both random and aggregated patterns of ALSD distribution were observed in sampled almond orchards ( Groves et al., 2005 ), indicating differences in almond cultivar susceptibility to the Xf biotypes present and
Craig A. Ledbetter and Elizabeth E. Rogers
Sunita Kochhar, Christopher B. Watkins, Patricia L. Conklin, and Susan K. Brown
The activities and isoenzyme patterns of guaiacol-dependent peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in yellow- and red-fruited crab apple [Malus (L.) Mill.] selections from a `White Angel' × `Rome Beauty' cross that show differential susceptibility to the physiological storage disorder, superficial scald. There were no consistent relationships between total enzyme activities and scald incidence, high activities of the enzymes being detected in selections with both high and low susceptibilities to scald. However, additional individual isoforms of some antioxidant enzymes were detected in the scald-resistant selections when compared with scald-susceptible selections. In a native gel system, four guaiacol-dependent POX isoenzymes were detected in both yellow and red scald-resistant selections compared with only two in scald-susceptible selections. Similarly, for anodic acidic POX assayed using benzidine, six isoenzymes were detected in both yellow and red scald-resistant selections compared with five in yellow and four in red susceptible selections. Ten SOD isozymes were detected in scald-resistant yellow-fruited selections compared with only five faint bands in scald-susceptible selections, but similar patterns were not detectable for red-fruited selections. Differences in the presence of various isoenzymes for CAT and APX were also detected among the selections, but associations with scald susceptibility were also affected by fruit color or were inconsistent. The presence or absence of individual isoenzymes may be a better indication of scald resistance or susceptibility than the total enzyme activities. Isoenzyme analyses, especially of POX, could be useful to breeders for the early detection of scald resistance/susceptibility in apples.
Annick Moing, Christel Renaud, Hélène Christmann, Lydie Fouilhaux, Yves Tauzin, Anne Zanetto, Monique Gaudillère, Frédéric Laigret, and Jacques Claverie
Rain-induced fruit cracking is a limiting factor for sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) growers in many production areas. Although many studies have concerned this complex phenomenon, the basic mechanisms involved in fruit cracking remain unclear. We re-examined the relations between osmotic potential and cracking susceptibility in cherry fruit by comparing the osmotic contribution of the major metabolites separately in flesh and skin, in four cultivars (with different levels of susceptibility to cracking) at four stages of development. Several differences were observed between flesh and skin revealing compositional gradients in the fruit tissues. Acidity and malate concentrations were higher in flesh than in skin for all stages. The absolute value of osmotic potential was higher but the contribution of the sum of sugars to osmotic potential was lower in flesh than in skin. As determined using fruit immersion test, `Fermina' and `Regina' were less susceptible to fruit cracking than `Lapins' and `Brooks'. At commercial maturity when fruit susceptibility to cracking was highest, no clear difference appeared between `Brooks' and `Lapins' compared to `Regina' and `Fermina' for flesh or skin osmolarity and for the contribution of the major sugars or organic acids to skin and flesh osmotic potential.
Mohsen Mohseni-Moghadam, Christopher S. Cramer, Robert L. Steiner, and Rebecca Creamer
the development of cultivars that have an increased tolerance to the virus. Onion cultivars may differ in their susceptibility to IYSV. However, no onion cultivar or breeding line has been found to be highly resistant to IYSV ( Gent et al., 2006 ). In
Aref A. Abdul-Baki, S. A. Haroon, and R. N. Huettel
Susceptibility of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotpyes to the root-knot nematode Meloydogyne incognita and to heat stress can be evaluated in a single labor- and time-saving operation using a nondestructive in vitro excised root technique. Seeds are sterilized and germinated for 2 days on 1% water agar. Five-mm root sections are grown at 28 and 35 C for 30 days on Gamborg-B medium with and without nematode inoculum. Evaluation criteria include fresh and dry weight and the appearance of juveniles, adults, gulls, and egg masses. Evidence will be presented on the breakdown of resistance to M. incognita under high temperature stress.
James K. Mitchell, Robert H. Ford, and W. Keith Patterson
European Vitis vinifera L. (four cultivars); interspecific hybrid (seven cultivars); and American V. aestivalis Michx. (one cultivar), V. labrusca L. (three cultivars), and V. rotundifolia Michx. (two cultivars) grapevines were tested for susceptibility to Septoria leaf spot disease. V. rotundifolia cultivars Cowart and Fry exhibited hypersensitive-type resistance. All other American, European, and hybrid cultivars tested were susceptible with varying levels of disease severity. Cultivars with little (e.g. interspecific hybrid) or no (e.g. European) V. labrusca L. heritage were more susceptible to Septoria leaf spot than American V. labrusca cultivars.
Cynthia L. Barden and William J. Bramlage
`Cortland' and `Delicious' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) were exposed to an increasing number of hours below 10C before sequential harvests in each of 3 years. In separate experiments, `Cortland' apples were a) sprayed with ethephon to induce ripening at moderate temperatures and b) bagged in late August to produce ripening at low light intensities. Scald development was determined after 4 to 5 months of storage at 0C. Significant negative relationships with scald development occurred for hours below 10C, harvest date, and ripening indexes at harvest; however, the regressions with percentage scald were stronger for hours below 10C than for either harvest date or ripening. When ethephon-induced ripening occurred in the absence of low temperature, scald development decreased only slightly. Bagging fruit significantly delayed the loss of scald susceptibility with increasing hours below 10C. We conclude that low temperature was most responsible for rapid, substantial loss of scald susceptibility, and that light and ripening were secondary factors in this loss, interacting with the effects of temperature. Chemical name used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).
Ana Cristina M. Brasileiro, Francisco J. Lima Aragão, Sílvia Rossi, Diva Maria A. Dusi, Leila M. Gomes Barros, and Elíbio L. Rech
To develop an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and tepary bean (P. acutifolius A. Gray), we have tested the susceptibility of six genotypes to eight Agrobacterium tumefaciens and two A. rhizogenes strains. The virulence of the Agrobacterium strains was shown to be genotype dependent. In general, the tumors observed on common bean cultivars were larger than those observed on tepary bean cultivars. The A. tumefaciens AT8196 and Ach5 strains and the A. rhizogenes 8196 strain induced the best responses in all genotypes tested. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in tumors derived from inoculation with three A. tumefaciens strains in common beans. Apical meristems of P. vulgaris cv. Jalo were bombarded with tungsten microprojectiles and then inoculated with an A. tumefaciens wild-type strain (Ach5). One month later, the explants showed a high frequency of tumor formation (50% to 70%). Similarly, when bombarded meristems were inoculated with an A. tumefaciens disarmed strain (LBA4404/p35SGUSINT), 44% of them showed substantial sectors of GUS activity, suggesting the expression of introduced gene. The bombardment/Agrobacterium system appears to be a promising method to stably transform bean through the regeneration of plants directly from transformed apical meristems.
K. Kasimor, J.R. Baggett, and R.O. Hampton
Commercial pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, plant introduction (PI) lines, and Oregon State Univ. (OSU) breeding lines were tested for resistance to pathotype P2 (lentil strain) and pathotype P1 (type strain) of pea seedborne mosaic virus (PSbMV) and to bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) to assess the relative proportion of resistant and susceptible pea genotypes. Of the 161 commercial cultivars tested, 117 (73%) were resistant and 44 were susceptible to PSbMV-P2. Of these PSbMV-P2-resistant cultivars, 115 were tested for resistance to BYMV and all were resistant. Of the 44 PSbMV-P2-susceptible cultivars, 43 were tested for BYMV susceptibility and all were infected except two, `Quincy' and `Avon', both of which were susceptible to a BYMV isolate in another laboratory. Of 138 commercial cultivars inoculated with PSbMV-P1, all were susceptible. All PI lines and OSU breeding lines that were resistant to PSbMV-P1 were resistant also to PSbMV-P2. The high percentage of commercial cultivars resistant to PSbMV-P2 was probably attributable to the close linkage of genes sbm-2 and mo and the widespread use by breeders of BYMV-resistant `Perfection' and `Dark Skin Perfection' in developing new pea cultivars. Segregation ratios in progenies of three separate crosses between PSbMV-P2-resistant and PSbMV-P2-susceptible cultivars closely fit the expected 3 susceptible: 1 resistant ratio expected for resistance conferred by a single recessive gene.
Won Jun, Soo-Seong Lee, and Jongkee Kim
Three inoculation methods, including cutting of a leaf, drenching, and point inoculation, were compared in an effort to screen the susceptibility of Chinese cabbage to soft rot disease caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Three- to 4-week-old seedlings from 10 lines of cabbage with 16-h-old bacterial culture were routinely used. Inoculated seedlings were kept at 25.0 ± 10.0 °C for 48 h with saturated water vapor using a plastic tunnel in a greenhouse. Sixty-day-old mature plants were produced and inoculated in a greenhouse. Severity of symptoms, which were observed from percentage of plant infected was scored as from 1 to 9, representing resistant to susceptible, respectively. The correlation between seedlings and mature plants from ten lines was evaluated among the three different inoculation methods. Point inoculation gave the most significant correlation (r = 0.843, P < 0.05) between seedlings and mature plants. A good correlation was also observed between point inoculation of seedlings and drenching of mature plants (r = 0.609, P < 0.05). Cutting of a leaf of seedlings was also correlated with point inoculation of mature plants (r = 0.609, P < 0.05). This method provides the advantage of being able to keep the experimental plant alive, as only one leaf is detached. The point inoculation method is simple and relatively sensitive, so it could be used for large-scale screening for this bacterial soft rot disease. From three different evaluation assays, it was concluded that the breeding lines, C3-28, C3-29 from Cornell Univ. (Geneva, N.Y.) and the cultivar Kweonsim319 were relatively resistant to bacterial soft rot, while the Cornell breeding line CC-25 and the `Rang-no' cultivar were relatively susceptible.