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Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, and Bingru Huang

apparatus, leading to degradation of chlorophyll ( Foyer et al., 1994 ; Smirnoff, 1993 ). Plants use ROS scavenging mechanisms to protect cells from oxidative injury, including the activation of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), which convert

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Naveen Kumar and Robert C. Ebel

for each treatment or as untreated controls at 0, 1, 2, and 3 DAT for estimation of H 2 O 2 and MDA concentrations as well as LOX, SOD, APOD, and GR activities. Sampling AZ tissue. The calyx AZ was collected from 40 fruits by using a 4-mm

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Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho, and Kenneth C. Gross

as specific activities. Proteins were determined by the method of Bradford (1976) using bovine serum albumin as a standard. Ten fruit were used for each replication. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was assayed spectrophotometrically by determining the

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D.M. Glenn, T. Tworkoski, R. Scorza, and S.S. Miller

-producing areas, irrigation management has not been as useful an approach as it has been in arid and semiarid regions because of natural rainfall ( Boland et al., 1994 ; Naor, 2006 ; Ran et al., 1992 ). Groundcover management and the establishment of sod and

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Samson Zeray Tesfay, Sakhile Mathe, Albert T. Modi, and Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

damage ( Seifried et al., 2007 ). Such an accumulation of ROS in the cell can be counteracted by a system of low molecular mass nonenzymatic antioxidants as well as by certain enzymes, SOD, CAT, and PODs, which catalyze the destruction of ROS resulting in

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Jennifer A. Kimball, M. Carolina Zuleta, Matthew C. Martin, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Ambika Chandra, and Susana R. Milla-Lewis

of the transition zone. The species is commonly used in the sod industry for its superior shade tolerance and stoloniferous growth habit ( Busey, 2003 ). A lack of cold tolerance, however, restricts the widespread use of st. augustinegrass in the

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Sasmita Mishra, Scott Heckathorn, Jonathan Frantz, Futong Yu, and John Gray

antibodies was carried out by treating membranes with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate (BCIP). Antiserum to Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD were purchased commercially (Stressgen Bioreagents, Victoria, BC, Canada), while antiserum to

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Xunzhong Zhang, Damai Zhou, Erik H. Ervin, Greg K. Evanylo, Derik Cataldi, and Jinling Li

acids, leading to cell death. Plants have evolved a complex antioxidant defense system (i.e., enzymatic and non-enzymatic detoxification systems) for protecting cells from ROS injury. SODs are metalloenzymes that convert O 2 –. to H 2 O 2 and are

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Matthew A. Cutulle, Jeffrey F. Derr, David McCall, Brandon Horvath, and Adam D. Nichols

conducted to evaluate the impact of seeding rate combinations of ‘Greenkeeper’ tall fescue and ‘Thermal Blue Blaze’ hybrid bluegrass on turf species dynamics, weed species encroachment, disease severity, and sod strength. Materials and Methods The

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Lu Gan, Xunzhong Zhang, Silu Liu, and Shuxia Yin

positive effect on perennial ryegrass under cadmium stress ( Lou et al., 2015 ). As one of the compatible solutes in plants, GB could protect membranes against oxidative damage by stimulating antioxidative enzymes such as SOD (EC 1.15.1.1), CAT (EC 1