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Jianfeng Liu, Bowen Yang, Yuetong Ming, Yuchu Zhang, and Yunqing Cheng

found in NCBI. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing of the red raspberry ( R. idaeus ‘Sijihong’) was conducted, and 59,173 unigenes were acquired after de novo assembly of the sequences. Thus, our transcriptome sequence data are considerably

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Michel Lamarre and Michel J. Lareau

From 1988 to 1990, the fall fruiting raspberries Heritage, Perron Red, Autumn Bliss and 3413-12 were field evaluated under two cultural systems: conventionnal production and production under plastic tunnel. The plastic tunnel was in place over 4 rows from early September to late October without supplemental heating. Compared to the conventionnal system, the tunnel contributed to a lengthening of 1 to 4 weeks in the fruiting period 2 years out of 3. In spite of the higher day temperatures, the rate of fruit ripening was not increased under the tunnel but fruit size was increased slightly. However, the latter did not translate in higher yield per day since fruit number decreased under the tunnel. Total yield increased only one year when the first killing frost occurred a full month before the second one. Generally, night temperatures were as low in the tunnel as those outside.

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Christine M. Bradish, Gad G. Yousef, Guoying Ma, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, and Gina E. Fernandez

Market demand for fresh red raspberries has greatly increased with health conscious consumers, due to their high flavonoid content ( Graham et al., 2009 ; Seeram, 2008 ). Red raspberries are eaten fresh, frozen, or processed in a number of food

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Johanne C. Cousineau and Danielle J. Donnelly

The inheritance of five isoenzymes was studied in red and purple raspberry F1 progenies (Rubus idaeus L. and Rubus × neglectus Peck). Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was a dimeric enzyme present in the cytosol and coded for by one locus (Idh-1). Three of the four crosses analyzed at this locus had deviations from expected ratios, possibly caused by its linkage to a recessive lethal gene. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI; EC 5.3.1.9), and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI; EC 5.3.1.1) were dimeric enzymes with two loci. Each of these three enzymes was present in an organelle and in the cytosol for locus 1 and 2, respectively. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; EC 2.7.5.1) was monomeric with two loci, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2, located in an organelle and the cytosol, respectively. Each allele at Pgm-1 resulted in the formation of two bands. Although most progenies analyzed supported Mendelian inheritance of polymorphic loci (except for Idh-1), there was a higher than expected number of aberrant segregation ratios observed (18.4%). Analysis of 85 pairs of jointly segregating loci revealed a possible linkage group consisting of Mdh-2, Tpi-2, and Pgm-1.

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Jean-Guy Parent and Danièl Pagé

Characterization and identification of 13 red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and two purple raspberry (R. × neglectus Peck) cultivars were obtained by nonradioactive genetic fingerprinting. DNA from leaves was digested with Hae III and Hin f I restriction enzymes and probed with alkaline phosphatase-labeled oligonucleotide. All tested cultivars could be identified by a unique band pattern. No differences were noted within cultivars when the reproducibility of the fingerprints was evaluated by analyzing the effects of age of the raspberry plantation, developmental stage during the growing season, or position of the sampled leaf on stem. These results suggest that simple nonradioactive DNA fingerprinting can be routinely used to identify raspberry cultivars.

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Amanda J. Vance, Patrick Jones, and Bernadine C. Strik

The Pacific Northwest region of the United States is an important growing region for the production of blueberry ( V. corymbosum L.), blackberry ( Rubus L. subgenus Rubus , Watson), raspberry ( R. idaeus L.), and strawberry ( Fragaria

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Eric Hanson, Steven Berkheimer, Annemiek Schilder, Rufus Isaacs, and Sasha Kravchenko

Seven primocane-fruiting and 15 floricane-fruiting raspberry varieties (Rubus idaeus) were compared for three fruiting seasons on a loamy sand soil in southwest Michigan. The earliest primocane-fruiting varieties (`Autumn Bliss', `Autumn Britten', `Polana') began ripening 3 weeks before the standard variety, `Heritage'. `Autumn Bliss' was the most productive early primocane-fruiting variety. `Caroline' and `Dinkum' ripened about 1 week earlier than `Heritage', and `Ruby' was 2 days later. `Caroline' was the most productive of this group and also had large fruit that were somewhat resistant to rot caused by Botrytis cinerea. `Caroline' also received the greatest leaf feeding from rosechafer beetles (Macrodactylus subspinosus). Most primocane-fruiting varieties were fairly resistant to leaf spot (Sphaerulina rubi), while `Dinkum' was highly susceptible to spur blight (Didymella applanata). Floricane-fruiting varieties were evaluated based on fruit production and quality as well as winter injury to canes, disease resistance, and feeding injury from two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae). The floricane-fruiting varieties showing minimal winter injury were `Boyne', `Killarney', `Latham', `Nova', and `Prelude'. `Canby', `Encore', `Glen Ample,', `Qualicum', `Reveille', `Titan', and `K 81-6' were moderately hardy; while `Tulameen', `Malahat', and `Lauren' were not hardy enough for this location. `Reveille', `Killarney', `Boyne', and `Prelude' were the most productive floricane-fruiting varieties. `Nova' and `Qualicum' had low levels of botrytis rot. `Nova' was most resistant to leaf spot and also had resistance to spur blight. Injury from mites was greatest on `Glen Ample' and lowest on `Malahat', `Prelude', `Qualicum', and `Tulameen'. `Caroline' (primocane-fruiting), `Prelude', and `Nova' (floricane-fruiting) were promising newer varieties.

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M. Joseph Stephens, Jenny Gaudion, Harvey K. Hall, and Julia R. Enfield

‘NR7’ is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar from The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (PFR) and Northwest Plant Company (NWP) joint raspberry breeding program. It is owned by Pacific Berries

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M.M. Stahler, F.J. Lawrence, and R.R. Martin

More than 300 red raspberry cultivars and selections were screened for raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) bushy dwarf virus (RBDV), tobacco streak virus (TSV), and tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in three naturally infected breeding program selection plots at Corvallis, Ore. All genotypes tested negative for TSV and TomRSV. The RBDV incidence in primocane-fruiting cultivars and selections was 67%; in floricane-fruiting genotypes, it was 34%. The pattern of RBDV infection in the field showed no discernible trend. The high incidence may have been due to use of infected parents, propagation of infected genotypes, and pollen transmission. `Willamette', considered to be immune to the common strain of RBDV, along with 14 clones that had been in the field 10 years or longer, tested negative. The high incidence of RBDV in the breeding plots may provide an opportunity to identify resistant parents for breeding programs. An early seedling screening method for RBDV susceptibility is desirable to eliminate highly susceptible genotypes from the program and maintain a lower incidence of RBDV within the breeding plots.

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Pedro Brás de Oliveira, Maria José Silva, Ricardo B. Ferreira, Cristina M. Oliveira, and António A. Monteiro

On cultivated red raspberry plants, biennial canes grow on a perennial root system. Usually primocanes (vegetative) and floricanes (reproductive) are present at the same time. This complex system is highly plastic because the various plant parts