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Steven A. Sargent, Adrian D. Berry, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and James W. Olmstead

market demands. Identifying cultivars that maintain good postharvest quality during transport and marketing is critical to a successful MH program. Firm fruit texture is one of the most critical characteristics because it improves the probability that

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Marcela Miranda, Xiuxiu Sun, Christopher Ference, Anne Plotto, Jinhe Bai, David Wood, Odílio Benedito Garrido Assis, Marcos David Ferreira, and Elizabeth Baldwin

structure. In this context, edible coatings can contribute to fruit quality and shelf life by improving visual quality and reducing postharvest losses due to desiccation if the formulation does not cause off-flavor due to modification of the internal fruit

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Marisa M. Wall

insects [such as the green scale ( Coccus viridis ), coconut scale ( Aspidiotus destructor ), and banana moth ( Opogona sacchari )] can delay or impede the shipment of bananas and lead to postharvest losses. The possible rejection of a shipment as a result

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Robert A. Saftner, William S. Conway, and Carl E. Sams

The effects of postharvest pressure infiltration of calcium chloride (CaCl2) solutions, fruit coatings and shrink-wrap film treatments of apples (Malus domestica Borkh. `Golden Delicious') on peel injury, quality attributes, respiration and internal atmospheres after storage at 0 °C for 2 to 6 months, and during subsequent ripening at 20 °C were investigated. CaCl2 treatments (0.14 to 0.34 mol·L-1) reduced internal and evolved ethylene and softening of fruits, but they also caused distinctive injury to the fruit surface. Following the CaCl2 treatments with a water rinse and a wax- or shellac-based coating or a shrink-wrap film reduced surface injury in fruits treated with 0.24 or 0.34 mol·L-1 solutions of CaCl2 and eliminated injury resulting from a 0.14 mol·L-1 CaCl2 treatment. The fruit coatings delayed ripening; as indicated by better retention of fresh mass, green peel color, titratable acidity and flesh firmness, and the reduced respiration and ethylene production rates that were observed upon transferring the fruits to 20 °C. Sequential treatments with CaCl2 and a shrink-wrap film also reduced fresh mass loss, respiration and ethylene production rates, but had no effect on other quality characteristics. Internal CO2 levels increased and O2 and ethylene levels decreased in surface coated fruits during storage at 0 °C. Coating fruits without the use of CaCl2 also delayed ripening though not as well as that for fruits sequentially treated with CaCl2 and a surface coating.

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A. Naor, R. Stern, M. Peres, Y. Greenblat, Y. Gal, and Moshe A. Flaishman

The effects of the timing and severity of postharvest water stress on the productivity and fruit quality of field-grown nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Snow Queen] were studied for two consecutive years. Three levels of postharvest water status (midday stem water potentials of -1.2, -2.0, and -2.8 MPa) were examined. They were designated as High, Med, and Low, respectively. In the second year two additional treatments were examined in which Low and Med water status were interchanged on 1 Sept. 2002, and these treatments were designated as Low/Med and Med/Low. The percentages of double fruits and of those having a deep suture increased with decreasing postharvest midday stem water potential during the previous year, and most of these defects were stimulated by water deficits that occurred prior to 1 Sept. Postharvest water stress led to decreased crop yield in the subsequent year because there were fewer fruits per tree. Flower buds with double pistils were first noticed in mid-September, and by mid-November the ranking of double pistils in the various treatments were similar to the ranking of double fruits measured a month after bloom in the subsequent season. Postharvest water stress delayed flower bud development. The percentage of double fruits increased from 10% in 2002 to 40% in 2003 and the higher percentage in 2003 was associated with higher air temperatures during the reproductive bud development stage in 2002 than in 2001. Our data and others suggest that high temperatures create a potential for the occurrence of double fruits, but that the fulfillment of that potential is highly dependent on postharvest tree water status. The occurrence of double and deep suture fruits were highly correlated with midday stem water potential in August of the previous year, i.e., during the initial stages of flower bud development. The occurrence of double fruits was observed to increase sharply as the midday stem water potentials fell below -2.0 MPa, which suggests that a midday stem water potential of -2.0 MPa could serve as a threshold for postharvest irrigation scheduling.

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Robert R. Tripepi, Mary W. George, K. Amanda Linskey, John E. Lloyd, and Jennifer L. Van Wagoner

% of all woody nursery stock production in the state ( USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2006 ). Holding methods used for balled and burlapped conifer trees may inadvertently reduce their quality and appearance. By late summer after the

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C.L. Chu

118 ORAL SESSION 36 (Abstr. 269–276) Postharvest Physiology/Fruits

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Clara Pelayo, Betty Hess-Pierce, Susan E. Ebeler, and Adel A. Kader

148 POSTER SESSION 17 (Abstr. 120–133) Postharvest Physiology/Storage/Food Science Wednesday, 26 July, 1:00–2:00 p.m.

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Esmaeil Fallahi and Brenda R. Simons

The influence of three rootstocks, various levels of soil-applied nitrogen in fall, and spring spray applications with and without minimum ground nitrogen on tree growth, productivity, leaf and fruit nutrient partitioning, and postharvest quality of fruit at harvest and after storage in `B.C. 2 Fuji' apple was studied over several seasons. Early results showed that trees on M.26 and M.9 were more precocious and had higher yield and yield efficiency. Trees on M.9 had significantly higher leaf Ca and incidence of sunburned fruit than those on other rootstocks. Trees on M.7 had larger fruit and higher leaf N, K, and Cu, but had lower fruit starch degradation pattern (SDP) and leaf Ca. Soluble solids at harvest were lower in fruit from trees on M.26 rootstock. Trees with fall nitrogen application had lower leaf N and better fruit color. Lower quantities of N application had smaller fruit but better fruit color and higher firmness at harvest. Fruit from all rootstocks did not produce ethylene for several days in the ripening chambers. After this period, fruit on M.9 rootstock produced ethylene before those from other rootstocks. Trees established with only nitrogen spray without any ground application had leaf N deficiency after they started bearing fruit. Establishment of a new `Fuji' orchard based on only nitrogen spray produced weak trees with low yield and yield efficiency, while addition of a small quantity of ground-applied N improved tree growth and fruit quality.

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Justin Butcher and Teddy Morelock

Postharvest storage of southernpeas is crucial in the production process. Governed by consumer demands, farmers strive for a product that is high in quality and freshness, and has an appropriate texture and appealing color. Improper storage of southernpeas results in their premature deterioration, lack of acceptance, and possible loss of profit. Therefore, an appropriate storage facility and temperature should be devised that will benefit both farmer and consumer. In an effort to prevent potential losses of southernpeas, a study was conducted to determine the best environmental condition at which to store and to potentially extend shelf life. In 2004, two experiments were conducted on the University of Arkansas Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Fayetteville, Ark., to determine the best genotype and storage environmental condition to maintain a quality marketable prod-uct. In the first experiment, a screening of 23 southernpea genotypes was conducted from single plots to determine which genotypes could maintain their appearance the longest in a refrigerated environment. In the second experiment, two separate plantings were made of five southernpea genotypes in a randomized block design in two separate fields. Upon maturity, 12 mature green pods of each genotype were subjected to a sweated and unsweated treatment. After shelling, seeds were subjected to one of three different environmental conditions: cool regime, room temperature, and ambient air, evaluating each on the basis of changes in physical appearance; a hot water dip treatment was also examined. A refrigerated environment at or near 37 to 41 °F was the best environment to store southernpeas for nearly 2 weeks. The sweated treatment also aided in the shelling process and appeared to maintain the appearance of each genotype longer.