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Mengmeng Zhang, He Huang, Qing Wang, and Silan Dai

is an important breeding objective for multiflora chrysanthemum. Flowering time, an important adaptive trait that strongly influences planting area and productivity and the market price of cultivated plants, is affected by both endogenous and

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Nicholas A. George, Kenneth V. Pecota, Blake D. Bowen, Jonathan R. Schultheis, and G. Craig Yencho

root piece, planting date, root piece size, and the effect of ethylene on root piece sizing and rotting. Breeding work has included germplasm screening and an investigation of the heritability of traits associated with root piece planting. This work is

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Kim E. Hummer and Jim F. Hancock

initial thought to a methodical approach with an inclusive approach from plant exploration to development and breeding. He thought of plant breeding as “ Эволюция по воле человека ” or “Evolution at the Hand of Man” ( Fowler and Mooney, 1990 ). Vavilov

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Zhitong Li and John M. Ruter

blooming vigor and longevity. Induction of polyploid genotypes is an effective means of producing enhanced characteristics and increased sterility. In breeding ornamental plants, polyploid induction has been widely applied to enlarge plant organs ( Caporali

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Davut Keleş, Hasan Pınar, Atilla Ata, Hatıra Taşkın, Serhat Yıldız, and Saadet Büyükalaca

of pepper production. The most significant way to increase yield per unit area is to develop cultivars that are resistant to such problems. Haploid plant production methods accelerate plant breeding studies and thus, play an important role in

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James J. Luby, Alicia L. Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Nnadozie Oraguzie, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt, and Amy Iezzoni

breeding programs in establishing target trait priorities. Breeders may rely on their personal experiences and producers’ feedback to prioritize plant and fruit traits, but this challenge is magnified when attempting to consider the possibly discrepant

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R. Karina Gallardo, Qi Zhang, Michael Dossett, James J. Polashock, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Nicholi Vorsa, Patrick P. Edger, Hamid Ashrafi, Ebrahiem Babiker, Chad E. Finn, and Massimo Iorizzo

in the decision-making process. Only a few horticultural studies have investigated trait priorities for plant breeding programs ( Gallardo et al., 2012 ; Yue et al., 2012 ). In blueberry, a consumer preference study assessed the impact of 36 specific

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Xuan Wu, Shuyin Liang, and David H. Byrne

, combined with previous studies ( Crespel et al., 2014 ; Kawamura et al., 2015 ) that reported high broad-sense heritability for several architectural traits of garden roses, indicated that rose plant architecture was a feasible target for rose breeding

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Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards

prebreeding programs that could help locate and ultimately exploit this variation in agricultural breeding programs. In practice, systematic exploitation of natural variation from wild relatives is a major investment of time and effort. Plant breeders have

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Waltram Ravelombola, Jun Qin, Yuejin Weng, Beiquan Mou, and Ainong Shi

shown to be unfavorably affected by salt stress ( Zahedi et al., 2012 ). Salt-stressed cowpea plants exhibited a reduced plant growth and vigor ( Mini et al., 2015 ). Salt stress can impair plant physiology, photosynthesis, and absolutely important