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Ockert P.J. Stander, Graham H. Barry, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

—the hormonal theory and the nutritional theory ( Bangerth, 2009 ; Barnett and Mielke, 1981 ; Davenport, 2000 ; Goldschmidt, 1999 ). The hormonal theory of alternate bearing suggests that phytohormones are responsible for floral inhibition during an “on” year

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Yanjiao Zheng, Zaiqiang Yang, Chao Xu, Lin Wang, Haijing Huang, and Shiqiong Yang

temperature stress is closely related to the nature of the plant itself. Therefore, the role of GA 3 in tomato plants under high temperature stress remains to be further explored. ZT is an important phytohormone, mainly produced in roots, involved in various

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Amaya Atucha and Greg Litus

IR have been described in plants: systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR). SAR can be triggered by chemical and biological elicitors, and is mediated by the phytohormone salicylic acid, and involves the synthesis of

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Tripti Vashisth and Taylor Livingston

performed using qRT-PCR. Fourteen genes related to plant defense response, phytohormone metabolism and signaling, and carbohydrate metabolism were used. The list of genes with their Arabidopsis homologs, primer sequence, and amplicon size used in this

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Mudau N. Fhatuwani and Makunga P. Nokwanda

associated with changes in sugar metabolism during seasons, which are also affected by phytohormones such as abscisic acid and ethylene. Both of these phytohormones are involved in responses to environmental factors, and several studies have established their

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Lu Gan, Xunzhong Zhang, Silu Liu, and Shuxia Yin

drought stress and GB application ( Yamamoto et al., 2008 ). Research has shown that phytohormone biosynthetic and signaling pathways interact with metabolites and regulate the growth and development of plants under drought stress ( Peleg and Blumwald

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Xiao-Juan Wei, Jinlin Ma, Kun Wang, Xiao-Jing Liang, Jin-Xuan Lan, Yue-Juan Li, Kai-Xiang Li, and Haiying Liang

camellias for earlier harvest. Considerable studies have demonstrated that phytohormones can induce early flowering in many plant species. However, the effect varies with the plant species, its age, and concentration of phytohormones used. For instance

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Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, Weidong Huang, and Haiying Xu

acid is a phenolic phytohormone, which has always been identified as a key signaling molecule involved in plant defense responses against stresses ( An and Mou, 2011 ). Previous studies have shown that SA can enhance the accumulation of flavonoid

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Yu-Chi Lee and Jer-Chia Chang

set, seed weight, and shriveling of ‘73-S-20’ litchi—with special reference to artificial induction of parthenocarpy HortScience 50 369 373 Davenport, T.L. 2000 Processes influencing floral initiation and bloom: The role of phytohormones in a

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Feifei Li, Da Zhan, Lixin Xu, Liebao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

of antioxidant defenses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, NY Musatenko, L.I. Vedenicheva, N.P. Vasyuk, V.A. Generalova, V.N. 2003 Phytohormones in seedlings of maize hybrids differing in their tolerance to high temperature Russ. J. Plant