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J. Pablo Morales-Payan and William M. Stall

Oral Session 19—Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants Moderator: Karen L. Panter 19 July 2005, 4:00–6:00 p.m. Room 101

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Kent Cushman, Muhammad Maqbool, Ebru Bedir, Hemant Lata, Ikhlas Khan, and Rita Moraes

Oral Session 19—Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants Moderator: Karen L. Panter 19 July 2005, 4:00–6:00 p.m. Room 101

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Nan Tang, Wuhua Zhang, Liwen Chen, Yan Wang, and Daocheng Tang

Marigold ( Tagetes erecta ) is commercially cultivated worldwide because of its ornamental, industrial, and medicinal values ( Ayyadurai et al., 2013 ). The flower is a typical capitulum that consists of ray florets and disc florets. The

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Santosh Shiwakoti, Tess Astatkie, Ivan Salamon, Daniela Grul'ová, Silvia Mudrencekova, and Vicki Schlegel

Cumin ( C. cyminum L.) is one of the important aromatic plants belonging to Apiaceae family. It has an ancient history of use as medicinal and spice plant since the Roman times ( Stojanov, 1972 ). Cumin seed was used for the treatment of toothache

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Vicki Schlegel

Oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) is a well-known medicinal, culinary, and essential oil plant that has been used as medicinal plant since ancient times in the Mediterranean region ( Stojanov, 1973 ). Indeed, the plant, the plant extract, and the

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Yu-Chu Chang, Chou-Tou Shii, and Mei-Chu Chung

The genus Lycoris (Amaryllidaceae) comprises ≈30 taxa ( Kurita and Hsu, 1998 ), most of which have been grown for centuries as ornamentals and medicinal plants in China, Japan, and Korea. Lycoris taxa vary in flower shape and color as well as

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Santosh Shiwakoti, Shital Poudyal, Thomas Horgan, Natasha Kovatcheva, and Anna Dobreva

Garden sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) is a small herbaceous aromatic, medicinal, and culinary plant from the Lamiaceae family ( Pederson, 2000 ). Garden sage essential oil is extracted from the whole above-ground herbage and has numerous

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Thomas S.C. Li

Siberian ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. ex. Maxim.) Maxim] is currently a popular medicinal plant in Eurasia and North America. It has been used by the Chinese for over 2000 years. Recently, imported products of this plant have become available in North America, with a market share of 3.1% of the medicinal herbal industry. Siberian ginseng is harvested from its natural habitat in Russia and northeast China. Overharvesting has resulted in this popular herb approaching endangered species status. Cultivation is the only way to avoid its extinction, and to ensure the correct identity. Siberian ginseng is not a true ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L. or P. ginseng C.A. Meyer), but it has its own bioactive ingredients with unique and proven medicinal values. However, standardization and quality control of the active ingredients in the marketed products, which are mainly imported from China, are needed to avoid mislabeling or adulteration with other herbs.

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Usha R. Palaniswamy

Consumption of Asian herbs, spices, and vegetables in the U.S. has increased considerably within the past decade. This paper reviews some Asian culinary herbs and vegetables that are now increasingly used by American mainstream consumers, as well as ethnic Asians. It briefly summarizes traditional medicinal properties and the accumulating scientific evidence for functional properties of these plant species.

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I.L. Goldman

Much of the medicinal activity induced by vegetable Alliums is derived from a suite of organosulfur compounds formed following hydrolysis of the S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). One of these medicinal activities is the inhibition of blood platelet aggregation; a factor that may influence cardiovascular health. Concentrations of ACSOs in the onion bulb ebb-and-fl ow during the vegetative phase, suggesting they act as storage forms of sulfur. To examine whether medicinal efficacy paralleled these changes, I tracked bulb, leaf, and inflorescence-induced antiplatelet activity during reproductive growth of four onion genotypes. Levels of bulb-induced antiplatelet activity dropped sharply for the first 8 weeks following the end of vernalization. Leaf-induced antiplatelet activity also dropped rapidly for the first 4 weeks, but rose precipitously by week 6. The rapid loss in leaf-induced antiplatelet efficacy between week 6 and week 8 suggests a recycling of these organosulfur compounds from the leaves to the developing flower stalk and inflorescence, which would be needed for protection against insect pests. Overall, I found a dramatic decrease in bulb-induced antiplatelet activity concomitant with an initially similar decrease and subsequent increase in leaf-induced antiplatelet activity. These were complemented by the presence of high levels of antiplatelet activity induced by the inflorescence. These data indicate development mediates the medicinal activity induced by onion plants. Furthermore, the flux of antiplatelet activity induced by various plant organs suggests that this medicinal trait is serendipitously associated with the storage and cycling of sulfur in onion plants; perhaps in response to insect predation.