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Jia Liu, Tingting Xue, and Yongbao Shen

tree, princess tree ( P. tomentosa ), and foxglove tree ( P. fortunei )] harvested in Nanjing, China. The germination of freshly harvested seeds in princess trees and foxglove trees was more than 85%, but that of empress tree seed was only 0% to 50

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R.H. Bors and J.A. Sullivan

The potential of using Fragaria vesca L. as a bridge species for interspecific hybridization to F. nilgerrensis Schlect, F. nubicola Lindl., F. pentaphylla Losinsk, and F. viridis Duch. was investigated using a wide germplasm base of 40 F. vesca accessions. This study was successful in producing many hybrids between F. vesca and other diploid species indicating its value as a bridge species. Of the species used as males, F. nubicola, F. pentaphylla, and F. viridis accessions were more successful, averaging 8 to 16 fruit and 16 to 25 seeds/fruit. It was most difficult to obtain hybrids with F. nilgerrensis, which had only three seeds per fruit. Differences among pollen donors were minimal when hybrid seeds were germinated in vitro. For different species combinations, 75% to 99% of seeds had embryos and 77% to 89% of these embryos germinated. The lack of significant differences in crossability variables among the four F. vesca subspecies [i.e., ssp. americana (Porter) Staudt, ssp. bracteata (Heller) Staudt, ssp. vesca L., and ssp. vesca var. semper-florens L.] demonstrated the similarity between these species and the strong potential for gene flow between F. vesca and other diploid species. As European and North American F. vesca subspecies are not sufficiently divergent to differ in interspecific hybridization, F. vesca may be a younger species rather than an older progenitor species.

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Sinchieh Liu and Martha A. Mutschler

The transfer of multigenic traits into tomato has been slow due to interspecific barriers (hybrid breakdown) found in the F2 of the Lycopersicon esculentum × L. pennellii cross (esc × pen), including blocks in normal reproductive development and nonfecundity. In a typical (esc × pen) F2 population, failure to flower and premeiotic blocks in pollen development occurred in 2% and 11% of the population, respectively. The remaining plants showed a mean of 37% stainable pollen. Twenty three percent of the F2 plants set seed, with an average of 4.5 seeds/fruit. An average of 33% of the stainable pollen from the 7 F2 plants with the highest stainable pollen measurements germinated in vitro, but only 4 of these 7 plants set seed. Thus, percent stainable pollen is not an adequate predictor of fecundity, and the non-fecundity in the F2Le plants must involve barriers occurring after pollen germination.

A method was developed which greatly reduces or eliminates each of the F2 barriers. The method and its efficacy on each of the aspects of hybrid breakdown will be discussed.

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Bo-Ling Liu, Zhi-Bin Fan, Ze-Qun Liu, Xun-Hong Qiu, and Yan-Hong Jiang

have not been compared with that of extracts from plantlets of the same age but derived from seeds. The present study was initiated to answer this question and to examine the antioxidant activities of tissues from in vitro–grown plants and determine the

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Yan-Ling Zheng and Wei-Bang Sun

)-China Magnolia Program, we found about 5000 saplings of huagaimu in several local nurseries. The saplings were from seeds commonly sown in native loess, and the seeds normally took almost half a year to germinate. However, the relevant information of seed biology

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S.L. Kitto

Spigelia marilandica, an herbaceous perennial native to the temperate eastern United States, has great potential for the sunny garden due to a fairly long flowering period-and long (3.5-5.5 cm) tubular corollas that are scarlet on the outside and yellowish within. Non-wild collected seeds were disinfested using conventional procedures, and after 8 wk at 4°C, four seeds germinated in vitro. Preliminary experiments examined seedling lines (# 1, 2, 5 and 6) and media (MS versus DKW.) Line 6 was found to be consistently more proliferative over a six month period. Trend analysis demonstrated no difference in total number of axillary shoots produced on full versus 1/2 MS media. MS-derived microcuttings were chlorotic but appeared to root better than DKW-derived microcuttings.

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Ai-Rong Li, Kai-Yun Guan, and Robin J. Probert

numbers of seedlings are needed. However, seeds of this genus often germinate slowly, nonuniformly, and in low percentages ( Jensen, 2004 ; Kaye, 1997 ; McDonough, 1970 ). Therefore, effective methods must be found to obtain uniform and rapid germination

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Serge Gudin and Laurence Aréne

Flowers of two cultivars of Rosa hybrida were treated or not with putrescine before being pollinated from 2 to 8 days after anther emasculation. On both cultivars the 10-3 M putrescine treatment extended the effective pollination period, as shown by the best hip formation rates and mean number of seeds per hip. On one cultivar, the 10-5 M putrescine treatment increased fertilization efficiency (more hips obtained). The effect of putrescine was proportionally more important on the cultivar characterized by the highest stigmatic exudate pH. Putrescine also influenced in vitro pollen germination by increasing the length of emitted pollen tubes (10-3 and 10-5 M-putrescine) and the quantity of germinated pollen grains (10-5 M putrescine).

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Thierry E. Besançon

). Commercial cranberry beds are generally maintained for long periods of time, often surpassing 20 years. This longevity provides opportunities for seeds contained in rotten or unharvested fruit to germinate and become established, thereby increasing the

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Sherry Kitto and Jeanne Frett

Hexastylis shuttleworthii is a highly ornamental shade-tolerant evergreen herbaceous plant native to the southeastern U.S. that is difficult to propagate using traditional methods. Micropropagation would make possible the wider distribution of selected clones. Seeds were surface-sterilized and germinated in vitro. Seedling clones were maintained on a MS basal medium containing 1 mg/L BA and were subcultured monthly. Proliferation of clones 2 and 3, maintained on media supplemented with 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/L BA for 6 months, increased slightly with increasing BA concentration; however, proliferation decreased slightly over the experimental period. Rooting medium (perlite, vermiculite, MetroMix 510, Bacto Growers Mix) did not effect microcutting root production or subsequent plant survival. Microcuttings rooted in vitro (67% survival) generated more leaves compared to microcuttings rooted under humidity domes with mist in the greenhouse (8% survival). After rooting in vitro, multiple-shoot clumps (95%) survived better than individual shoots (29%) under greenhouse conditions. Plants were easily established when planted in raised beds in a lath house.