Foliar spray of either BA or GA3 alone or in combinations of the two growth regulators were tested for their effects on Bryophyllum plants. Neither BA nor GA3 alone succeeded in stimulating lateral branching or flowering. GA3 totally inhibited bulbils formation. In a panel evaluating the ornamental quality, plants treated with GA3 at 100 ppm ranked top. The combination of BA and GA3 enhanced growth, branching, flowering and bulbils formation. The combinations of BA and GA3 at 50 ppm each, significantly improved the propagative qualities of the bulbils. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -H purin-6-amine (BA), Giberllic acid (GA3).
Fahed A. Al-Mana and Tajelsir I.M. Idris
Brian E. Whipker and Shravan Dasoju
Plant growth retardant (PGR) foliar spray treatments (mg•liter–1) of daminozide at 1000 to 16,000; paclobutrazol from 5 to 80; and uniconazole from 2 to 32 were applied to `Pacino' pot sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) to compare their effectiveness at chemical height control. When the first inflorescence opened, the number of days from seeding until flowering, total plant height measured from the pot rim to the top of the inflorescence, inflorescence diameter, and plant diameter were recorded. Total plant height, plant diameter, inflorescence diameter, and days until flowering were significant for the PGR treatment interaction. Marketable-sized plants grown in the 1.2-liter pots were produced with uniconazole concentrations between 16 and 32 mg•liter–1 or with daminozide concentrations between 4000 and 8000 mg•liter–1. Paclobutrazol foliar sprays up to 80 mg•liter–1 had little effect and higher concentrations or medium drench treatments should be considered.
Jorge B. Retamales and Cerardo A. Accedondo
Calcium gradients were established in firm (`Bluecrop' and `Blueray') and soft (`Ivanhoe') highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits from a 7-year-old planting at La Union, southern Chile. Manual firmness measurements established that `Ivanhoe' fruit was softer than either `Bluecrop' or `Blueray'. In all varieties, Ca concentrations were: seed > pulp > epidermis; opposite trends were found for K+Mg/Ca ratios. Seed number and Ca concentration in the pulp were negatively correlated in `Bluecrop' and `Ivanhoe', but not in `Blueray'. In a related experiment, the response of `Bluecrop' to preharvest sprays of two calcium sources (chloride and nitrate) in four doses (0, 47.5, 35, or 190 g Ca/100 liters of water) was studied; dose and source interactions were not significant. Both calcium sources affected fruit Ca concentrations similarly;l calcium applications, either as nitrate or chloride, increased Ca significantly in epidermis and seed; the highest dose was required to raise significantly Ca concentrations in the pulp. K+Mg/Ca ratios in nitrate- or chloride-treated fruit were: pulp > seed > epidermis.
J.R. Schupp, H.A. Schupp, and M.H. Bates
A study was conducted in 1992 at Highmoor Farm, Monmouth, ME to test the effects of fish hydrolysate fertilizer on fruit set, fruit size and fruit quality of apple. Mature, semi-dwarf `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' trees received 2.76g/1 N, supplied by either fish hydrolysate fertilizer or urea, or received no fertilizer (control). Fertilizers were applied via three foliar sprays applied at seven day intervals, beginning at petal fall. Fish hydralysate fertilizer reduced fruit set of `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious'. Foliar urea increased fruit set and yield of 'Golden Delicious'. Neither fertilizer affected mineral nutrient concentrations of leaves collected in July. Fish hydrolysate increased fruit russeting on both cultivars. Fish hydrolysate is not recommended as a foliar fertilizer for apples.
Warren C. Stiles
Potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate and potassium acetate were applied as foliar sprays at recommended rates for each material to Empire and McIntosh apple trees in a potassium deficient orchard. Five sprays of each material were applied at approximately one-week intervals beginning in mid-August All sprays were applied by means of a small air-blast sprayer calibrated to deliver 800 1 ha-1 of a 1.744X tank mix, i.e. equivalent to dilute sprays of 1400 1 ha-1. Total amounts of K applied per ha were 8.6 kg with K-acetate and 28 kg ha-1 with K-nitrate and K-sulfate. Leaf samples were collected from each plot at normal harvest date for each variety and washed prior to drying and analysis. Regression analysis indicated a significant (P=0.05) positive relationship, r = +0.4740, between total amount of K applied and leaf K regardless of the source. Significant positive relationships were found between average fruit weight and percent leaf potassium with both varieties.
J.G. Clapp Jr.
Urea-triazone-based nitrogen (N) solutions were evaluated for potential leaf injury on agronomic and horticultural crops at 61 commercial grower sites throughout the United States. Poliar spray solutions containing triazone N were used at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 15.7%. Safe N concentrations for urea-triazone-based N products ranged from 1.5% for crops such as sweet corn, apple, cherry, and pear, and up to 15.7% for nursery root stocks. Urea-triazone-based N solutions were found to be much safer on crop foliage than ammonium-, nitrate-, and/or all urea-based foliar fertilizer products than reported in the literature.
Vladimir Orbovic, John L. Jifon, and James P. Syvertsen
Urea solutions, with or without non-ionic (X-77) and organosilicone (L-77) surfactant, were applied to Citrus leaves and isolated cuticles to examine adjuvant effects on urea uptake and leaf net gas exchange. When compared to X-77, L-77 exhibited superior features as a surfactant, resulting in smaller contact angles of droplets deposited on teflon slide. Both L-77 and X-77 had a strong effect on penetration rate of urea within first 20 min of experiment. Effect of L-77 on urea penetration rate decreased quickly within next 20 min, whereas the effect of X-77 was sustained over a 24-h period following application. When compared to solution of urea alone, addition of X-77 to urea resulted in significant increase of the total amount of urea that penetrated the cuticles. The effect of L-77 was smaller, although the total amount of urea that penetrated the cuticles within a 4-day period was similar for both surfactants. Solutions of either urea alone, urea+L-77 and urea+X-77, or L-77 alone, induced a negative effect on net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) for 4 to 24 h after they were sprayed onto leaves. X-77, when applied alone, had no effect on ACO2. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that 1 h after application, leaf surfaces treated with X-77 appeared to be heavily coated, as opposed to those treated with L-77, which appeared similar to untreated control leaves.
Dariusz Swietlik, James A. Bunce, and Stephen S. Miller
Application of a complete nutrient solution (CNS) on apple seedling leaves reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Tween 20 and CaCl2 were components of the CNS which induced gs reduction. Tween 20 alone, however, did not cause stomatal closure, but CaCl2 (24.8 mm) had a consistent, negative effect on gs when applied alone. Application of CaCl2 in combination with one of the other macrocomponents of the CNS (MgSO4, urea, or K2SO4 + KH2PO4) produced less consistent gs reductions indicating that the CaCl2 effect on gs can be modified by the presence of these compounds. Urea, MgSO4, or K2SO4 + KH2PO4 had little effect on gs when applied separately. Application of MgCl2 or KCl, which were not the CNS components, decreased and had no effect on gs, respectively. In addition to gs reduction, CaCl2 sprays reduced net photosynthesis (Pn). The equivalence of intercellular CO2 concentration in sprayed and unsprayed seedlings implied that the Pn drop following CaCl2 sprays resulted from decreased capacity of mesophyll for CO2 fixation and not from reduction in the stomatal aperture. Two possible explanations for stomata closure are discussed: a direct effect of CaCl2 on stomata and an indirect effect of CaCl2 spray through changes in mesophyll CO2 fixation capacity. Reductions in gs and Pn following treatments with different salts were not associated with visible leaf injury.
M. L. Weaver, H. Timm, H. Ng, D. W. Burke, M. J. Silbernagel, and K. Foster
Chemicals often associated with pollen function in vitro were applied under field conditions to foliage of determinate, semi-determinate, and indeterminate beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to evaluate pod and seed yield response. Sprays of calcium nitrate, boric acid, ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid, detergent “Micro”, and different sugars altered pod retention and seed yield, but response varied with bean source.
Roy A. Larson and R. Kent Kimmins
α-Cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol) applied to inherently tall-growing chrysanthemum cultivars controlled ht at concn of 62 mg/liter (0.06 mg/15 cm pot) when applied as a foliar spray, and 0.12 mg/15 cm pot when applied as a soil drench. An thesis was delayed in plants treated with high concn of the growth retardant but flower size and no., and node no. were unaffected.