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D.J. Makus and J.R. Morris

Supplemental Ca was supplied to `Cardinal' and `Fern' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) plants grown in an Enders clayey silt loam soil as a foliar spray of Ca glutarate, as soil incorporated gypsum, as fertigated calcium nitrate (CaNO3), or as a combination of the above. Controls received no Ca. Individual fruits were partitioned into six parts: proximal, distal, inner and outer receptacle, and proximal and distal achenes. Mineral nutrient concentrations (dry mass basis) found in the inner and outer receptacle, and in achenes were, in descending order, K, P, Ca, Mg, Al, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, and Cu; K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, B, and Cu; and Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Cu, and B, respectively. Many nutrients, including Ca, tended to occur in greater concentrations in the proximal portion of the fruit than in the distal part. With the exception of Al, nutrient concentration gradients were lowest in the inner receptacle. Fruit Ca concentrations were highest in achenes and lowest in inner receptacle tissue. Differences among cultivars in Ca concentration were found in achenes but not in receptacle tissue. Calcium treatment had no effect on receptacle tissue Ca concentrations, regardless of cultivar, but CaNO3 and combination treatments increased Ca concentrations in the achenes in the proximal half of `Cardinal' fruit. Concentrations of all other nutrients except Mn were unaffected by supplemental Ca treatments.

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Teresa Olczyk, Juanita Popenoe, Ed Skvarch, and Alejandro Bolques

good market include orchids (Orchidaceae) and bromeliads (Bromeliaceae), color plants, foliage for interiors, high-quality plant material, unusual plants such as uncommon ferns [e.g., spleenwort ( Asplenium spp.), shield fern ( Dryopteris spp.), tree

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Robert J. Dufault

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different cutting pressures (CP) of 3,6,9, or 12 spears per plant on `UC 157 F1' asparagus yield harvested in spring or forced in July or August. Ten-week-old seedlings were field planted in March, 1987 and forced to emerge from 1989 to 1993 by mowing fern in separate replicated plots in July or August. Forcing treatments were not spring-harvested. Harvesting was terminated if 1) 30 harvests had occurred or 2) 80% of all plants reached cutting pressure treatment levels before 30 harvests occurred. Forced yields were compared to normal spring harvests. Normal emergence time is from January to March. CP treatments affected yield more than harvest time (HT) during the first three harvest years, but, thereafter, HT treatments affected yield more than CP. The most productive HT/CP treatment combinations varied by harvest year as follows: 1989—spring at 9 to 12 spears per plant, July at 12 spears per plant, and August at 9 spears per plant; 1990—forcing in July or August at 12 spears per plant; 1991—forcing in July at 9 to 12 spears per plant; 1992—forcing in July or August at 9 to 12 spears; and 1993—forcing in August at 9 to 12 spears per plant. Total cumulative yields over the 5 year period were highest with forcing in July at 12 spears per plant and August at 9 spears per plant. The productive lifespan of spring-harvested `UC 157 F1' was only three years because of greater stand loss compared to summer forcing.

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M. Oren-Shamir, E.E. Gussakovsky, E. Shpiegel, E. Matan, I. Dory, and Y. Shahak

Many green-decorative branches (“Greens”) and cut flowers are commercially grown under shade nets, for both the reduction of the natural intercepted sunlight as well as physical protection. The most commonly used are black nets, which do not affect the visible light spectrum. In the work presented here we have studied the effects of shade nets of varying optical properties on the vegetative and flowering responses of ornamental plants, searching for nets that will specifically induce a desired behavior, thus gaining benefits in addition to the mere shading. Nets of different transmittance spectra, light scattering, reflectance and thermal properties are being studied for their effect on the vegetative growth of several Greens: Pittosporum variegatum, Ruscus hypoglossum, and Leather-leaf fern. The knitting density of all nets has been adjusted to have the same percent shading in the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) range of the spectrum for all nets investigated. Experiments were carried out in commercial plots. Data were collected for microclimate, physiological and horticultural parameters. The main results obtained so far: i) pronounced stimulation of the vegetative growth under the Red net; ii) dwarfing by the Blue net; iii) the Grey net markedly enhanced branching, yielding “bushy” plants with short side branches; iv) the reflective, thermal net (Aluminet®) enhanced side, long branching (in Pittosporum). Recently we have applied a similar approach to cut flowers such as Lupinus luteus, Lisianthus eustoma, and Dubium ornitugalum, and obtained dramatic effects of some of the nets on both the vegetative development and flowering behavior. The results to be presented, suggest that sophistication of the use of shade nets can lead to better agricultural performance.

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Robert H. Stamps

Water is an economical source of heat to prevent cold damage to certain crops; however, ways to reduce the quantity of this limited resource required for cold protection need to be developed. Rapidly rotating (6 rpm) wedge-drive impact sprinklers (conventional practice) were compared with a rotary action spray head and patented slow-rotating stream sprinklers for cold-protecting a subtropical crop {leatherleaf fern [Rumohra adiantiformis (Forst.) Ching]} growing in shadehouses. Treatments were applied in a 3 × 3 latin square design to nine 29 × 29-m post- and-cable shadehouses covered with woven polypropylene shade fabric designed to provide 73% shade. Temperatures in each shadehouse were monitored 45 cm above the soil surface using four constantan–copper thermocouples. Ambient temperatures and wind speeds were monitored using additional thermocouples and an anemometer at a nearby weather station. All sprinklers had 2.8-mm orifices, were operated at 0.25 Pa, and applied 0.5 (rotating stream, rotary) or 0.54 (wedge-drive) cm·hr–1 of water. During an advective freeze with windspeeds up to 19 m·s–1 and temperatures to –2°C, there were no temperature differences due to treatments. During a radiational freeze with readings below –2°C for over 12 hr and a low of –5°C, all three irrigation systems maintained thermocouples at about –1°C. No significant damage to mature fronds were detected. Percentage of immature fronds damaged was not affected by treatments and ranged from 11% for rotary to 43% for the wedge-drive sprinkler treatments. The two newer sprinkler designs (rotary action spray head and patented slow-rotating stream) provided satisfactory protection equivalent to the industry standard (wedge-drive) while using about 10% less water.

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Joseph C. Neal and Andrew F. Senesac

Preemergent herbicide phytotoxicity was evaluated for six species of container-grown ornamental grasses: beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), pampas grass [Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn.], tufted hair grass [Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauvois.], blue fescue [Festuca ovina cv. glauca (Lam.) W.D.J. Koch], fountain grass [Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.], and ribbon grass (Phalaris arundinacea cv. picta L.). Herbicides included isoxaben, metolachlor, MON 15151, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin; the granular combination products of benefin plus trifluralin; and oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin. Metolachlor, granular or spray, and oryzalin severely injured all species tested, except beachgrass, which was not injured by metolachlor granule. Napropamide injured pampas grass, fountain, grass, blue fescue, and tufted hair grass, but was safe on ribbon grass and beach grass. Pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin; MON 15151, isoxaben, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, and benefin plus trifluralin were safe on all six species. Chemical names used: N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine(benefin);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben);2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyll-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(MON 15151);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitro-benzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).

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Rongpei Yu, Ying Cheng, Yanfei Pu, Fan Li, and Shugang Lu

without resorting to harvesting wild populations. Many fern species have been successfully established in an in vitro propagation system via spores ( Barnicoat et al., 2011 ) and shoot organogenesis from juvenile leaves ( Camloha et al., 1994 ), rhizomes

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Mari Loehrlein

, and ferns were omitted. For such a comprehensive collection, the reader is referred to the Flora of China Project, involving Chinese and foreign botanists (see http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/ ). The authors note that they would have included more

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Martín Mata-Rosas and Víctor M. Salazar-Rojas

, and pumice (3:1:1); and 3) shredded long tree-fern fiber. Survival of plantlets and their height were recorded for 4 months. Results Germination For M. tuxtlensis and C. pendula , germination was first observed 100 to 120 d after

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Robert H. Stamps, Seenivasan Natarajan, Lawrence R. Parsons, and Jianjun Chen

cold protection of 935 L·min −1 ·ha −1 ( St. Johns River Water Management District, 2004 ). However, a minimum water application rate of 1300 to 1478 L·min −1 ·ha −1 has been recommended for cold protection of subtropical leatherleaf fern in Florida