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Doron Holland, Irit Bar-Ya'akov, and Kamel Hatib

’ has a flower of 1.7–2.1 cm diameter with white smooth petals. The style is straight with the stigma emerging above the anthers height at anthesis. The sepals are green (RHS144A), and the anthers are yellow (RSH162A). Flowering is abundant. One or two

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Zhitong Li and John M. Ruter

shorter shoots ( Trojak-Goluch and Skomra, 2013 ). Following Blakeslee and Avery (1937) seminal publication on the application of the mitotic inhibitor colchicine for the doubling of plant chromosomes, chemical treatment has been widely used in the

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, Lisa W. DeVetter, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

averaged ≈100 mmol·m −2 ·s −1 . Accumulation and partitioning of dry matter and calcium. With ‘Elliott’, dry matter accumulated in the berries in a typical double-sigmoid pattern, with an initial period of rapid growth (stage I) from petal fall to fruit

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Kelly M. Oates, Thomas G. Ranney, and Darren H. Touchell

that of R. hirta ranged from 3.4 ± 0.2 pg to 4.0 ± 0.2 pg. In many cases, fertility can be restored in wide hybrids by doubling the genomes to create allopolyploids. Allopolyploids have duplicate homologous chromosome sets from each original parent

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Neil O. Anderson, Esther Gesick, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Steven Poppe, Barbara E. Liedl, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

have an additional row of petals creating double whorls (duplex) ( Anderson and Gesick, 2008 ). Based on actual counts, Mammoth™ ‘Lavender Daisy’ flowers with as many as ≈6860 inflorescences (mean) per plant in Year 2. As Mammoth™ ‘Lavender Daisy

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Duane W. Greene

first application of ProCa to retard vegetative growth and to control fire blight are the same. The first application is made when terminal shoot growth is between 2 and 7 cm and this timing generally coincides with early petal fall ( Greene, 1999

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Xiaohua Du, Mengye Wang, Aneta Słomka, and Huichao Liu

the absence of dark lines on the flower petals (nectar guides for pollinators) and the presence of huge blocks of color on the lower (anterior) and lateral petals called a “face.” This pansy and its progeny have become popular with gardeners and

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Elisabeth M. Meyer, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

ornamental characteristics such as larger, longer-lasting flowers, thicker petals, and larger, thicker leaves ( Kehr, 1996 ). In addition, polyploid plants, particularly allopolyploids, can have other advantageous traits such as enhanced vigor, improved pest

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, and Wayne W. Hanna

developing more compact forms. Induced polyploidy often results in the gigas effect of individual organs; particularly those with determinate growth such as sepals, petals, fruits, and seeds ( Stebbins, 1950 ). However, in the case of induced autopolyploids

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Wei Zhou, Xiaoming Wang, Jianhua Chen, Liangming Chen, Zhongquan Qiao, and Huijie Zeng

malformation or an absence of egg cells, synergid cells, or polar nuclei; the presence of only a developed integument; undeveloped nucellus tissue; and no mature embryo sac. Therefore, double fertilization does not result in the formation of the embryo and