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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez, and Stephanie E. Burnett

more physical and environmental control compared with field-based production systems. Therefore, given the risks associated with foodborne illness outbreaks coming from large-scale outdoor farms, production in CEs may offer consumers peace of mind in

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Laura Pickett Pottorff and Karen L. Panter

, biofungicides may be combined with other management strategies to provide adequate control in many production systems ( Shishkoff and McGrath, 2002 ). Table 1. Examples of commercially available biofungicides and the fungi they are labeled to control ( McSpadden

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Michele Krucker, Rita L. Hummel, and Craig Cogger

. Like with the overhead-irrigated plants, when douglas-fir bark was added to Groco at 50% by volume, results were equivalent to the controls in all measured parameters. Subirrigation systems require proper porosity for uptake and retention of water

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Ling Li, Takashi Watanabe, Atsuko Uragami, Hiroaki Kitazawa, and Xiangyou Wang

. Recently, a closed cultivation system for white asparagus production has been proposed as a typical model of plant factories ( Motoki et al., 2012 ). In such a system, the O 2 concentration surrounding the crowns can be easily controlled. In our previous

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Ibrahim I. Tahir, Sven-Erik Svensson, and David Hansson

; Weibel and Häseli, 2003 ). This method is reported to show the lowest costs for practical weed control without any negative effect on tree performance and yield ( Stefanelli et al., 2009 ). The sandwich system can also decrease pests and diseases and

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Gene A. Giacomelli

High tunnel crop production systems capitalize on the greenhouse effect and its subsequent microclimate modification. They are part of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) systems for crop production. They can provide daytime air and soil

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Kelly T. Morgan, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Michael D. Dukes

typically less sensitive to pressure variations compared with turbulent flow emitters. Flow rate of these emitters is controlled by vortex design and orifice diameter. If microsprinkler systems are operated under windy conditions on hot, dry days, wind drift

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

users ( Chappell et al., 2013 ; Lea-Cox et al., 2013 ). Recent research has demonstrated that sensor control can be implemented using low-cost, open-source microcontrollers for small systems ( Ferrarezi et al., 2015 ), whereas extensive wireless

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Karla M. Addesso, Anthony L. Witcher, and Donna C. Fare

, 2017 ). In recent years, augmentative biological control has become the core component of IPM programs in greenhouse ornamental production and other vegetable and fruit cropping systems ( Buitenhuis et al., 2015 ; Pilkington et al., 2010 ). Most of the

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Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Mark Gleason, and Jean Batzer

reported significant weed control using cover crop mulches; however, to achieve high levels of weed control it is imperative to obtain substantial cover crop biomass. Rolled cover crop systems can lead to yields equivalent to those of tilled, bare ground