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Amanda Skidmore, Neil Wilson, Mark Williams, and Ric Bessin

, 2012 ). Alternative control measures should be considered ( Lewis et al., 1997 ) to reduce reliance on insecticides. Growers have been encouraged to adopt various integrated pest management (IPM) techniques for cucurbit cropping systems. These

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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez, and Stephanie E. Burnett

more physical and environmental control compared with field-based production systems. Therefore, given the risks associated with foodborne illness outbreaks coming from large-scale outdoor farms, production in CEs may offer consumers peace of mind in

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Laura Pickett Pottorff and Karen L. Panter

, biofungicides may be combined with other management strategies to provide adequate control in many production systems ( Shishkoff and McGrath, 2002 ). Table 1. Examples of commercially available biofungicides and the fungi they are labeled to control ( McSpadden

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Osama Mohawesh, Ammar Albalasmeh, Sanjit Deb, Sukhbir Singh, Catherine Simpson, Nour AlKafaween, and Atif Mahadeen

under the green and black colored shading nets was higher compared with that of the unshaded control. These results further confirmed that colored shading nets could help reduce water stress and enhance WUE in semi-arid crop production systems ( Mohawesh

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Michele Krucker, Rita L. Hummel, and Craig Cogger

. Like with the overhead-irrigated plants, when douglas-fir bark was added to Groco at 50% by volume, results were equivalent to the controls in all measured parameters. Subirrigation systems require proper porosity for uptake and retention of water

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Ling Li, Takashi Watanabe, Atsuko Uragami, Hiroaki Kitazawa, and Xiangyou Wang

. Recently, a closed cultivation system for white asparagus production has been proposed as a typical model of plant factories ( Motoki et al., 2012 ). In such a system, the O 2 concentration surrounding the crowns can be easily controlled. In our previous

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Ibrahim I. Tahir, Sven-Erik Svensson, and David Hansson

; Weibel and Häseli, 2003 ). This method is reported to show the lowest costs for practical weed control without any negative effect on tree performance and yield ( Stefanelli et al., 2009 ). The sandwich system can also decrease pests and diseases and

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Kelly T. Morgan, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Michael D. Dukes

typically less sensitive to pressure variations compared with turbulent flow emitters. Flow rate of these emitters is controlled by vortex design and orifice diameter. If microsprinkler systems are operated under windy conditions on hot, dry days, wind drift

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Gene A. Giacomelli

High tunnel crop production systems capitalize on the greenhouse effect and its subsequent microclimate modification. They are part of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) systems for crop production. They can provide daytime air and soil

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

users ( Chappell et al., 2013 ; Lea-Cox et al., 2013 ). Recent research has demonstrated that sensor control can be implemented using low-cost, open-source microcontrollers for small systems ( Ferrarezi et al., 2015 ), whereas extensive wireless