soluble nutrients and organic C to soil ( Johnson et al., 2006a ), a high C- to-N ratio of composted municipal biosolids (CMB) reportedly limited turfgrass growth rate and development of dark green color ( Linde and Hepner, 2005 ). If the balance of N
Ronnie W. Schnell, Donald M. Vietor, Richard H. White, Tony L. Provin, and Clyde L. Munster
Kimberly K. Moore
The ornamental horticulture industry uses a variety of materials as ingredients in growing substrates for many ornamental plants. There are many attributes that make growing substrates effective, including good aeration and drainage, availability at an acceptable price, and chemical attributes conducive for plant growth. In recent years there has been a trend in which more traditional organic components, such as Canadian sphagnum peat, have been partially replaced by an increasing array of waste-product compost. Plant response to increasing quantities of compost in the potting mix, and to different types of compost are variable. This paper reviews some important issues in the utilization of urban waste compost products.
R.C. Funt and A.K. Hummell
Compost increases nutrient availability, cation exchange capacity, and micronutrients in the soil. In urban areas, yard waste consisting of grass clippings, leaves, and woody materials can be composted. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of soil-composted municipal sludge and soil-composted yard waste mixtures on strawberry plants grown in the greenhouse. Earliglow strawberry plants were planted in pots containing a soil mix of 0%, 10%, 20%, or 40% by volume of composted municipal sludge or composted yard waste. Plants were grown in the greenhouse with supplemental lighting. Soil-compost mixes having greater the 90 mhos of soluble salts were detrimental to the plants; plant survival was reduced by 80% in the 40% composted sludge–soil mix within 2 weeks after transplanting. Plants survived and grew in all other treatments. Composted yard waste at 20% to 40% by volume increased leaf K and B, but decreased P, Ca, and Mg.
Robert F. Bevacqua and Valerie J. Mellano
Compost made from sewage sludge (40% by volume) and chipped trimmings of Eucalyptus trees (60%) was evaluated as a soil amendment for the field. production of onion (Allium cepa cv. Spanish Sweet Utah), lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Black Seeded Simpson), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus cv. Sonnet Yellow), and turfgrass (Festuca arundinacea cv. Marathon). Turf shows a strong reponse to preplant compost applications and is relatively tolerant of the buildup of soluble salts that can occur with compost applications. Also since it is not a food crop the possible uptake of heavy metals is not a major concern. These results indicate the amending of soil for the planting of turf is a likely commercial use of the compost. The authors are presently evaluating the use of the compost as a top dressing on turf plantings.
Monica Ozores-Hampton, Thomas A. Obreza, and George Hochmuth
Large volumes of compost produced from waste materials like yard trimmings, household trash (municipal solid waste), or biosolids (wastewater sludge) will likely become available for use by the Florida vegetable industry in the future. Using compost to produce vegetables has the potential to increase water and fertilizer conservation and reduce leaching from inorganic fertilizers in Florida's sandy soils. Compost quality for vegetable production systems should be based on soluble salts, phytotoxic compounds, C:N ratio, plant nutrients, trace metals, weed seeds, odor, moisture, pH, water-holding capacity, bulk density, cation exchange capacity, and particle size. In Florida, immature compost contained phytotoxic compounds that were harmful to crop germination and growth. Amending soil with mature composted waste materials has been reported to increase the growth and yields of vegetable crops grown in Florida. However, a beneficial response does not always occur, and the magnitude of the response is often not predictable.
Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Efthimia Nydrioti
) have been customarily used on green roofs. Organic substances such as peat and composts have also been used but at smaller participation percentages to prevent substrate subsidizing as a result of decomposition ( Williams et al., 2010 ). As substrate
Michele Krucker, Rita L. Hummel, and Craig Cogger
reduces solid waste production and the subsequent need for disposal. Alternative components include various composted materials ( Carlile, 2008 ; Corti et al., 1998 ) using feedstocks such as yard debris and pruning waste, animal manures, biosolids
Xiaoyan Dai, Donald M. Vietor, Frank M. Hons, Tony L. Provin, Richard H. White, Thomas W. Boutton, and Clyde L. Munster
Top-dressings of composted municipal biosolids (CMB) increase nutrient concentrations in soil and clippings and enhance turfgrass color, quality, and growth ( Garling and Boehm, 2001 ; Hansen et al., 2007 ; Johnson et al., 2005 ). In addition
WJ. McLaurin and G.L. Wade
In response to national Cooperative. Extension Service initiative and Georgia's Solid Waste Management Acts, eight state agencies and University of Georgia personnel joined forces to demonstrate simple and effective home composting concepts in a workshop format. Attended by over 550 participants, a series of ten workshops were held in selected locations throughout the state. These workshops were designed to instruct local volunteers to teach appropriate waste management practices concerning home composting and how home composting can help meet the state mandated 25% landfill reduction goal, what costs are involved, how to establish a community education program, and where to obtain technical assistance.
During the daylong workshop, participants heard presentations on five important aspects of the role of composting in community waste management--the legislative/environmental mandate., the composting process, equipment/site requirements, curbside waste reduction, and start-up for local programs in home composting.
As the first state-wide home composting educational project, it serves as a model for other state-wide initiatives targeting waste management concerns, and creates appropriate impetus for community waste management action throughout the state.
Zhengli Zhai, David L. Ehret, Tom Forge, Tom Helmer, Wei Lin, Martine Dorais, and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos
and compost products in the nursery industry, some of which could be applied to organic production settings. Amending soil or potting media with some organic wastes can improve soil physical properties with increased porosity and waterholding capacity